I.Directions: Translate the following words and expressions into the respective target language. (40′)

1. the Internet of Things: 物联网

2.economic turnaround: 经济(形势)好转; 经济回升向好

3. stamp duty: 印花税 

4.subprime crisis: 次贷危机

5.real economy: 实体经济

6.CPI: 居民消费价格指数(Consumer Price Index); 消费者物价指数

7.UNESCO: 联合国教科文组织(United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)

8.ecocide: 生态灭绝

9.property bubble: 房地产泡沫

10.down payment: (分期付款中的)首期期款;预付定金

11.conglomerate: 砾岩; 联合大公司;企业集团

12.YouTube: 世界上最大的视频分享网站, 设立美国,用户可上载、观看及分享影片或短片

13.DJ: 音乐节目主持人; 唱片骑师

14. IDD: 国际直拨电话(international direct dial);国际长途电话

15. hard news: 重要新闻, 重大新闻

16.side event: 周边会议

17.government watchdog: 政府监督机构

18.carbon footprint: 碳足迹

19.Twitter: 推特,著名社交网络和微博客服务网站

20.funemployment: 失业乐活(用于形容在意外失业之后因享受空闲而感到的快乐)

21.借词: loan world

22.全球暖化: global warming

23.经济不景气: (economic) recession; economic downturn

24.经济适用住房: (economically) affordable housing

25.节能减排: energy-saving and emission-reduction; Energy conservation and emission reduction

26.面向基层: for the grassroots; be directed at grassroots levels

27.反腐倡廉: to combat corruption and build a clean government; combat corruption and uphold integrity

28.法治国家: a country under the rule of law; law-based government

29.生态文明: ecological civilization

30.误译: misinterpretation; mistranslation

31.非物质文化遗产: intangible cultural heritage

32.执政为民: exercises  power for the people;working for a government serving the people

33.生态移民: ecological migration;eco-migration

34.对等词: equivalent

35.民意测验: opinion poll

36.年度风云人物: man of the year; Person of the Year

37.举报电话: tip-off telephone

38.抢占科技制高点: capture the  scientific and technological high ground

39.保障“米袋子”“菜篮子”安全: secure food supply

40.推进政务公开: to make government affairs pubic

II.Directions: Translate the following two source texts into their respective target language. (110’ }

Source Text 1: (55′)

Wealth, as Mr. Hobbes says, is power. But the person who either acquires, or succeeds to a great fortune, does not necessarily acquire or succeed to any political power, either civil or military. His fortune may, perhaps, afford him the means of acquiring both, but the mere possession of that fortune does not necessarily convey to him either. The power which that possession immediately and directly conveys to him, is the power of purchasing; a certain command over all the labor, or over all the produce of labor which is then in the market. His fortune is greater of less, precisely in proportion to the extent of this power; or to the quantity either of other men’s labor, or what is the same thing, of the produce of other men’s labor, which it enables him to purchase or command. The exchangeable value of every thing must always be precisely equal to the extent of this power which it conveys to its owner.

But though labor be the real measure of the exchangeable value of all commodities, it is not that by which their value is commonly estimated. It is often difficult to ascertain the proportion between two different quantities of labor. The time spent in two different sorts of work will not always alone determine this proportion. The different degrees of hardship endured, and of ingenuity exercised, must likewise be taken into account. There may be more labor in an hour’s hard work than in two hours easy business; or in an hour’s application to a trade which it cost ten years labor to learn, than in a month’s industry at an ordinary and obvious employment. But it is not easy to find any accurate measure either of hardship or ingenuity. In exchangeable indeed the difference is commonly made for both. It is adjusted, however, not by any accurate measure, but by the haggling and bargaining of the market, according to that sort of rough equality which thought not exact, is sufficient for carrying on the business of common life. (351 words)

参考译文:霍布斯曾说,财富就是权力。不过,就任何人来说,取得或继承了一大笔财富,不是必然等于在民事或军事上取得或继承了人任何政治权力。财富也许让他有 了取得政治权力的手段,然而光是拥有一笔财富,并不必然授予他任何政治权力。任何人因拥有财富而立即直接获得的力量是购买力,也就是对于一般劳动的支配 力,或者说,和能购买或支配他人劳动数量(或是这个劳动数量的产出)的大小成正比。每一样东西的交换价值,必然正好等于它赋予占有者这种权力的大小。

虽然劳动是测量一切商品交换价值的真正标准,但平常测量商品的价值,却无法使用这种标准。要确定两种不同劳动数量的比例,时常会有困难。只看花在两种不 同工作的时间,并不足以确定两者劳动数量的比例。两种工作所花费的体力和脑力,也必须一并纳入考虑。一小时的粗重工作的劳动数量,也许大于两小时的轻松工 作;需要十年才能学会的行业里,工作一小时所含的劳动数量,也许大于在一学就会的行业里工作一个月。可是,要找到可以精确测量体力或脑力的标准却不容易。 当不同种类的劳动产品实际交换时,一般都会考虑这些因素。然而,实际所作的调整,却不是根据精确的测量,而是在市场上由买卖双方讨价还价来决定,结果也许 不是很精确,但就维持日常生活秩序的目的来说,这种大致的公平原则却已足够。

Source Text 2: (55′)


从常理上是无法解释这种鼠居首现象的,于是人们结合鼠狡黠的特点附会出各种生动有趣的传说。其中较为合理的解释是:鼠在地支子时(夜里23时至凌晨1 时)四处活动,子时是一天当中最黑暗之时,老鼠此时出没便于隐藏行迹。由此看来,鼠昼伏夜出的习性是使它能够在十二生肖中独占鳌头的主要原因,与其口碑不 佳及相貌可鄙无甚关系。

鼠的一个别名是“老鼠”。虽然从表面上看,这个称谓名不符实。但是鼠具有顽强的生命力,它善处逆境、繁殖力强; 既是无恶不作的害人精,也是充满灵性的小生灵。俗语“鼠变虎”恰恰反映出人们早已看穿了鼠的阴险老辣之处,当它谋得虎位时,定会比老虎更凶狠,寓示着小人 如果得志,便会猖狂霸道,令人生畏。所以从这种意义上说,鼠堪称“老鼠”之名。(381 words)

参考译文:Since ancient times, it has been an incredible thing that rats, one of the four pests, rank first in China’s zodiac. With their petty looks, sneaky movements and destructive power, rats own a notorious reputation as said in a saying “When a rat runs across the street, everybody cries, “kill it!””

The phenomenon of rats ranking first cannot explained through common sense, therefore, various interesting folktales was created with regards to their cunning characteristics. A comparably sensible explanation is about the work and rest rule of rats who are used to hiding by day and coming out at night. When moving around in midnight (from 23:00 to 1:00), the darkest hour of a day, rats can better hide their whereabouts. In this sense, the number 1 ranking in the zodiac has nothing to do with their bad reputation and petty looks.

An alias for rats is “lao shu”(in Chinese, “lao” means shrewdness, “shu” means rat). At first glance, the name falls short of the reality. However, rats boast of dogged vitality, strong breed fertility and a good head for meeting adventures. They are both evil vermin and smart little creatures. There is a saying goes, “A rat replaces the tiger”, showing that people have long seen through the sinister nature of rats. When a rat replaces the tiger as the king, it will surely be more ruthless than the tiger. The same is true that a flunky will be savage, overbearing and intimidating if he holds sway. From this point, rats is worthy of the name “lao shu”.

天津外国语大学MTI 2010-2014 真题下载:百度云

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