I. Phrase Translation
1 EI Nino
2 emerging industries
3 suspended particles
4 export license
5 integrated circuit
7 think tank
8 extensive development
9 Pierre de Coubertin
10 Davos Economic Forum
11 World Intellectual Property Organization
12 Suez Canal
13 United Nations Environment Programs
II. Passage translation
Source Text 1:
Chinese multinational companies(MNCs)still lack numerous resources,which may severely hinder their foreign expansion efforts.They need to develop strategies to compensate for their relative lack of resources and their reputation of inferior quality .The larger Chinese firms now have the ability to provide high quality products at a lower cost than their Western counterparts.Competing abroad requires larger R&D investments, stronger marketing programs, more extensive sales organization and sophisticated supply chain system, as well as careful public relation. The biggest difficulty for Chinese firms investing abroad is to determine who is going to own the commercial networks, how to develop efficient distribution schemes and successful brands, and how to master human resources policies in countries unfamiliar to them.To skills demanded by foreign markets through organic growth in a step-by-step approach, through alliance,or through the acquisition of selected foreign companies. Companies such as Haier and Huawei decided to build their own brands,which shows that, however difficult it may be, organic growth is not totally out of reach for Chinese MNCs. “Link-type” alliance are often seen as a more efficient way to get rapid access to foreign markets, whereas acquisitions to strengthen presence in foreign markets gave poor results. Thus, normally Chinese companies trying to enter foreign markets should consider alliances or joint-ventures because of their relative lack of knowlege of the markets they aim at. （选自 Chinese Multinationals )
参考译文：中国跨国企业仍然缺乏大量的可用资源，这可能会严重阻碍其对外扩张。他们需要制定战略来弥补其相对缺乏资源和质量低劣的名声。中国跨国企业有能力以相对西方同行更低的成本提供高质量的产品。参与国外竞争需要更大的研发投资,更强的营销方案,更广泛的销售组织和成熟的供应链系统,以及谨慎的公共关系。中国企业海外投资面临的最大困难包括如何拥有自己的商业网络, 如何开发高效的分配方案和成功地建立自己的品牌, 以及了解掌握他国的人力资源政策。中国跨国企业可以通过自身的自然增长来掌握在外国市场的生存技巧，或通通过联盟, 或通过收购优质的外国公司。海尔、华为等公司决定建立自己的品牌, 这表明，虽然困难重重, 中国跨国公司通过有机增长发展起来并不是遥不可及的。链型联盟往往被视为一个更有效的快速进入外国市场方法, 而通过收购以加强在国外市场力量的办法结果往往不尽人意。因此,中国企业相对缺乏进入目标市场的一些知识，他们应该考虑联盟或合资的方式。(选自《中国跨国公司》
Source Text 2:
公民个人和组织机构不仅可以成为政府行动的监督者，而且还能在自身具有影响力的范围内，为提倡诚信发挥极为重要的作用。这项原则已经载入《联合国反腐败公约》（U.N. Convention Against Corruption），公约已得到158个国家及欧盟的批准，进而成为一项几乎全球性的和最为全面的国际反腐败条约。这项公约涵盖广泛的预防性及惩罚性措施，含有国际合作和归还赃款的条款以及监督条约实施的机制，成为打击国内和跨国腐败的利器。
参考译文：Corruption is a problem that has beset public and private institutions — and hindered economic and social advancement — since ancient times.
It is now a well established principle that governments cannot fight corruption alone. The private sector and civil society must be actively engaged in shining a light on graft and stopping corrupt practices. National and local governments have been working with business and civil society to ensure that public procurements are conducted in a transparent and honest manner. Many governments are also partnering with business and nongovernmental groups to enhance transparency in industries prone to corruption. These initiatives have led to more efficient and effective use of public funds.
Private citizens and organizations can serve not only as watchdogs for government action, but they can also play a vital role in promoting integrity within their own spheres of influence. This principle has been enshrined in the U.N. Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), the nearly universal — ratified by 158 countries and the European Union — and most comprehensive international anti-corruption treaty. Broad coverage of preventive and punitive measures, provisions on international cooperation and the return of the proceeds of corruption and a mechanism to monitor the implementation of the treaty make it a potent weapon against national and transnational corruption.