4. direction of translation
5. informative texts
6. literal translation
7. parallel corpora
11. translation uit
13. disambiguation –
15. textual norms
1. As 56 million children return to the nation’s 133,000 elementary and secondary schools, the promise of “reform” is again in the air. Education Secretary Arne Duncan has announced $4 billion in Race to the Top grants to states whose proposals demonstrated, according to Duncan, “a bold commitment to education reform” and “creativity and innovation [that is] breathtaking.” What they really show is that few subjects inspire more intellectual dishonesty and political puffery than “school reform.”
To be sure, some improvements have occurred in elementary schools. But what good are they if they’re erased by high school? There’s also been a modest narrowing in the high-school achievement gaps between whites, blacks, and Hispanics, although the narrowing generally stopped in the late 1980s. (Average scores have remained stable because, although blacks, and Hispanics5 scores have risen slightly, the size of these minority groups has also expanded. This means that their still-low scores exert a bigger drag on the average. The two effects offset each other.)
An equally exciting area for research is to genetically alter crops to get higher yields from soils that are infertile or too acidic, toxic，or saline for varieties now in use. Vast land areas of the earth are either not utilized, or are underutilized for economically important crop production. Marketable yields have been obtained in California with a salt-tolerant research line of barly irrigated with water from Pacific Ocean. This genetic approach to saline crop production has been proven with barley, and is applicable to other crops. Barley grown with seawater was found satisfactory as a feed, and yields were appreciable. This development could be the shape of things to come in genetically opening a vast new, heretofore inaccessible, water resource for crop production. Few regulatory constraints would likely be leveled on this new technology. Genetically controlled plant nutrition will surely play a key role in the future of crop production.
Genetic resources will continue to be utilized for improvement of the nutritional (biological) value of food crops. Cereals still dominate the diets of most people. Progress in genetically raising the levels of protein and critically deficient amino acids in cereal grains has been singular.
1. “给力”是当前在中国极为流行的网络热词，它的字面意思是“给予力量”。最早在网 络上流行起来的是“给力”的反义词。“给力”现在被广泛用做形容词，描述某事物很“酷”、 “牛”、“带劲儿”。 后来，“给力” 一词逐渐演化，发展出按照汉语音译的英文版本和法文版本。2010年11 月10日，“给力” 一词出现在当天《人民日报》头版头条的标题中。一个网络热词竟然登上 了相对比较保守的党报，这件事让千百万网民们又惊又喜。
2. 2010年12月，为了向年轻一代普及航天科学教育，海南省开始在文昌市建设航天主题公 园。公园占地1800亩，紧邻文昌卫星发射中心。工程预计花费30亿元，在2013年完工。 这个航天主题公园将分四个展览区，包括地球、月球、火星和太阳。游客甚至可以进入 发射台，实地观看火箭发射。