I. Directions: Translate the following words, abbreviations or terminology into their target language respectively.
1 .vulnerability :脆弱性；弱点
2.biotic community :生物群落；生物界
4. exchange rate :汇率
5. deport :驱逐出境；放逐
6.letter of credit :信用证
7.herd capacity :放牧能力
9.arbitration clause :仲裁条款
11.equality and mutual benefit:平等互利
15. ASEAN:东南亚国家联盟（东盟）（Association of Southeast Asian Nations）
16.版图:territory ; domain
26.维修和置换:Repair and replacement
30.弱势群体:vulnerable groups ; disadvantaged groups
II. Translate the underlined part of the following passage into Chinese. (20 points)
Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) is one of the best known and most influential American novelist and short-story writers. In all his life, Hemingway was fascinated by war—in World War I，he worked for the Red Cross on the Italian Front, in the Spanish Civil War and World War II，he served as a war reporter. His experiences and observations provided him with materials and backgrounds for many of his best works, in which he concerned himself with man’s courage in facing strong physical forces.
“Grace under pressure” was Hemingway’s definition of courage.In his view, life is painful and complex. The only way to survive is to face what comes with honor, dignity, strength, knowledge and endurance. Hemingway’s overall message, as established in The Old Man and the Sea(1952), his nearly flawless short novel which gained him the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 and the Nobel Prize in 1954，is that although life is a lonely, losing battle, it is a struggle that a man can dominate in such a way that his loss has dignity and is itself a victory.
III. Translate the following passage into Chinese.(20 points )
There is relatively little literature available on the impacts of extreme climate events on livestock.Nevertheless, storms, blizzards and droughts are an important concern for livestock operations. In addition to the direct effects on animals, storms may result in power outages that can devastate farms that are heavily dependent upon electricity for daily operations. This was exemplified by the 1998 ice storm in eastern Ontario and southern Quebec, when the lack of power left many dairy farms unable to use their milking machines. This threatened the health of the cows (due to potential mastitis) and caused significant revenue losses. Milk revenue was also lost through the inability to store the milk at the proper temperature. Furthermore, the lack of electricity made it difficult to provide adequate barn ventilation and heating, thereby making the animals more susceptible to illness.（选自 impact of climatic changes mtizt.com注）
虽然有关极端气候事件对家畜影响的现有文献相对较少， 但毫无 疑问，暴风雨、暴风雪和干旱是影响家畜业的重要因素。除了对牲畜 的直接影响外， 暴风雨会导致电力供应中断。 那些高度依赖电力的农场的日常运作，将受到严重影响。例如，1998 年安大略省东部和魁 北克南部遭受暴风雪时， 许多产奶场因缺电无法使用挤奶机器， 从而 威胁奶牛的健康（因为可能导致乳突炎） ，并对农户收入造成严重损 失。牛奶无法在合适的温度下存放也导致了销售收入的减少。此外， 缺电还容易导致谷仓通风不畅，供暖不足，使奶牛易于患病。
IV. Translate the underlined parts of the following passage into English.(10 points)
辽宁省位于中国东北地区南部，东临朝鲜。简称辽，取省内辽河流域永久安 宁之意。1929年始称辽宁省。这里是我国清王朝的发祥地，前清历史和文物遗 迹众多。其中沈阳故宫，是清代开国时期留下来的宫殿建筑，还有清永陵、清福 陵、清昭陵、辽阳壁画墓群等文物古迹。辽宁省境内自然风光奇特秀丽，海岸线 绵长曲折，岛屿星罗棋布。辽宁同时又是一个多民族的省份，有汉、满、蒙古、 回、朝鲜、锡伯等44个民族。
Part Two (V-VII： 70 points)
V. Translate the following from English to Chinese.(20)
As elsewhere, Castrol has adopted a premium pricing strategy in Vietnam, which is consistent with the company’s attempt to build a global brand image of high quality. Castrol oil costs about US$1.5 per liter in Vietnam, about three times as much as the price of cheaper oil imported from Taiwan and Thailand. Despite the high price of its product, Castrol claims it is gaining share in Vietnam as its branding strategy wins converts. Castrol has had to tailor its distribution strategy to Vietnam ’ s unique conditions. In most countries where it operates, Castrol divides the country into regions and has a single distributor in each region. （选自 Case study: Castrol Oil in Vietnam 翻译硕士真题网注）
VI. Translate the following from Chinese to English.(20)
但出人意料的是，太平洋热带洋面水温自五月中旬至六月中旬一个月内下降了 7.8摄氏度使海水温度比常年同期低2-3摄氏度。这就是所谓的拉尼娜现象。她 的甚至更迅速的形成使科学家们感到惊讶不已。
VII.Translate the following from Chinese to English.(30)
“丘也闻有国有家者,不患寡而患不均,不患贫而患不安。盖均无贫,和无寡,安无倾。 夫是,故远人不服,则修文德以来之。既来之,则安之。”（选自《论语》英译：季氏第十六 mtizt.com注）
Concerning the head of a State or Family I have heard the saying:He is not concerned lest his people should be poor, But only lest what they have should be ill-apportioned. He is not concerned lest they should be few, But only lest they should be divided against one another. And indeed, if all is well-apportioned, there will be no poverty; if they are not divided against one another, there will be no lack of men. (11) If such a state of affairs exists, yet the people of far-off lands still do not submit, then the ruler must attract them by enhancing the prestage (te) of his culture; and when they have been duly attracted, he contents them.