对外经济贸易大学2019年翻译硕士MTI真题及参考答案




一、请将以下英文术语或词组翻译成中文,然后用中文加以简洁定义(每小题3分,共15分)

1.Budget deficit:财政赤字,是指一国政府在每一财政年度开始之初,总会制定一个当年的财政预算方案,若实际执行结果收入大于支出,为财政赢余,支出大于收入的经济现象,就叫作财政赤字。

2.Countervailing duty:反倾销税,是指一国对本国进口商征收的一种关税,以防止其他国家倾销。 根据《GATT 1994》第六条第一款的规定,一国的产品以低于正常价值的方式出口到其他国家,从而对缔约国领土上的既定产业造成物质损害或物质伤害的威胁,或严重阻碍在该国建立新产业,这种行为构成倾销。 在实践中,抵制倾销最重要和最有效的措施是征收反倾销税。

3.Equity capital:主权资本,又称权益资金、权益资本,是企业依法筹集并长期拥有、自主支配的资本。我国企业主权资金,包括实收资本、资本公积金、盈余公积金和未分配利润,在会计中称“所有者权益”。

4.Currency swap:货币互换,是指为降低借款成本或避免远期汇率风险,将一种货币的债务转换成另一种货币的债务的交易。

5.Corporate social responsibility:企业社会责任,是一种道德或意识形态理论,主要讨论政府、股份有限公司、机构及个人是否有责任对社会作出贡献。分为正面及负面:正面是指有责任参与;负面指有责任不参与。

二、请将以下中文术语或词组翻译成英文,然后用英文加以简洁定义(每小题3分,共15分)

1.倾销:dumping

Dumping, in economics, is a kind of injuring pricing, especially in the context of international trade. It occurs when manufacturers export a product to another country at a price below the normal price with an injuring effect. The objective of dumping is to increase market share in a foreign market by driving out competition and thereby create a monopoly situation where the exporter will be able to unilaterally dictate price and quality of the product.

2.边际成本:marginal cost

Marginal Cost is an increase in total cost that results from a one unit increase in output. It is defined as: “The cost that results from a one unit change in the production rate”.

3.一带一路:The Belt and Road Initiative

The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a global development strategy adopted by the Chinese government in 2013 involving infrastructure development and investments in 152 countries and international organizations in Asia, Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas.

4.十三五规划: the 13th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development of the People’s Republic of China (the 13th Five-Year Plan )

The 13th FYP lays out a 6.5 percent average annual growth target in an effort to achieve a “moderately prosperous society”‡ by 2020. 19 This 6.5 percent target is critical for the government to double China’s 2010 level of GDP by 2020.

5.收支平衡定价法:Breakeven Pricing

Break even pricing is the practice of setting a price point at which a business will earn zero profits on a sale. The intention is to use low prices as a tool to gain market share and drive competitors from the marketplace.

三、请将以下英语段落翻译成汉语(共60分)

African countries have, largely unsuccessfully, tried many approaches over the past 50 years to develop manufacturing. Despite this, the ambition remains. However, new and emerging technologies associated with the “new industrial revolution” will have to be mastered.

One of the largest manufacturing sub- sectors in Africa is food and beverages. Trends such as population growth, urbanization and the rise of the middle class are increasing the demand for more, better quality and more diversified food products. It is a huge opportunity for manufacturing.

Emerging technologies such as AI and 3D-printingcan play a catalysing role. AI applications being implemented elsewhere a real ready contributing to improving food production from the “farm to the fork”, for instance, by helping farmers to monitor growing conditions and to identify crop diseases timeously, by tracking products along the entire supply chain, by improving food-sorting and equipment-cleaning, by monitoring hygiene in factories, and by helping entrepreneurs develop new products. Block chain, a new digital technology that creates trust between parties and reduces the need for intermediaries, can help in this by improving the functioning of financial and land markets. 3D printing is contributing to the” mass customization” of new food products. It will not only drive customization of products to more closely meet consumer needs, but may also democratize production and innovation.

Boosting African industrialization through food processing will require drought-proofing agriculture, given that the continent is one of those worst affected by climate change. This is an opportunity for” green” industrialization and promotion of the circular economy. Africa has nine times the solar potential of Europe and an annual equivalent to one hundred million tons of oil. With such considerable potential energy resources, the costs of electricity, one of the most vital inputs into manufacturing, should drop significantly in Africa in years to come.

How do African countries harness these opportunities? Yes, there is a digital divide and yes, Africa lags behind in terms of many indicators of participation in the digital economy. Yes, there may not at present be enough science, technology, engineering and mathematics skills available in local labour markets. However, in the digital economy, leapfrogging is possible. Kenya is already a world leader in financial technology. And new mobile technology is already being used to stream video lectures into African classrooms: there is nothing inevitable or permanent as far as the skills gap is concerned.

It is wrong to argue that Africa should still be investing in traditional manufacturing sectors based on the idea that somehow this will give African countries the experience to “learn” how to industrialize. There is little opportunity in “old” industries where useful learning can occur in the age of disruptive digital manufacturing. In fact, it may only serve to lock certain countries into dead-end manufacturing sectors. What is far more sensible today is to invest in entrepreneurial ability. Africa has great entrepreneurs. Let’s start now to build the start-up ecosystems that can generate the future giants of African manufacturing.

参考译文:

四、请将以下汉语段落翻译成汉语(共60分)

五月的草原一片绿色,我们来到内蒙古进行关于城市义务教育免费工作的调研。应当说,这项影响深远的工作成果使草原的教育散发出一股浓浓的春的气息。

内蒙古自治区共有32个城市地区。2006年秋季,自治区就对县级市和满洲里、二连浩特两个计划单列市共14个城市地区义务教育阶段的中小学生全部实施了“两免”。2007年秋季,全区其余18个城市地区义务教育阶段的中小学生也全部被纳入“两免”政策实施的范围。

城市义务教育免费政策的实施,促进了义务教育健康、稳步发展,保障了所有适龄少年儿童实现“有学上”的愿望,降低了义务教育阶段中小学生的辍学率。它在一定程度上减轻了城市低收入家庭的负担,尤其是使城市低保家庭、下岗职工家庭、多子女家庭和进城务工人员家庭得到了实实在在的好处。在调研过程中,我们深切体会到家长和学生,特别是低收入家庭对“两免”政策的热烈欢迎和衷心拥护。内蒙古自治区不仅免除了城市地区义务教育阶段学生的学杂费,同时还免费提供了教科书。鄂尔多斯市的东胜区除了“两免”外,还免除了学生的作业本费。

为了保证进城务工人员的子女都能够充分接受义务教育,自治区按照国家的有关政策,采取多种形式,保障进城务工人员子女接受义务教育的权利。截至2007年底,全自治区义务教育阶段进城务工人员子女20.6万多人,全部享受与当地居民子女同等的“两免”政策。

参考译文:

汉语写作与百科

50个选择题(考察范围广)+应用文+大作文

1:“博学之,审问之,慎思之,明辨之,笃行之”的出处?中庸

2:《训蒙文》作业是哪朝人?清朝

3:哪个青铜器不是周代造的?四羊方尊

4:“阑珊”的意思?凄凉、凄楚、凋零

5:”饮马翰海,封狼居山,西规大河,列郡祈连”说的谁?霍去病

6:《长相思·山一程》谁写的?纳兰性德

7:《桃花扇》主人公?侯方域、李香君

8:宋代五窑之首?汝窑

9:“锦官城外柏森森”中“锦官城”指?成都

10:“靖康之耻”中东京现为?被俘虏的皇帝是?开封/宋徽、钦总

11:下面体现王安石作文思想的是?且所谓文者,务为有补于世而已矣

12:《与山巨源绝交书》作者?嵇康

13:下面为编年体史书的是?《左传》

14:罗马帝国第一位元首?屋大维

15:英国著名的以口语体写作的浪漫主义史诗?《唐璜》

16:Memorial Day是为了纪念在哪次战争中丧生的士兵?南北战争

17:石黑一雄《盛世遗踪》是以谁的视角写作的?庄园管家

18:犹太人在哪场战役中高喊“宁死不成奴”?马萨达战役

19:迷惘的一代作家不包括?Jack London

20:Babbit指?城市狭隘市侩阶级

21:《流荧集》作者?泰戈尔

22:揭露棱镜计划的媒体包括《卫报》以及?《华盛顿邮报》

23:莎士比亚在哪本著作里提到玫瑰战争?《亨利六世》

24:美国第一档乡村音乐节目《往昔的歌剧-老乡音》是在哪个地方开的?田纳西州纳什维尔

25:下面哪部是村上春树的作品?《海边的卡夫卡》

26:总统山石雕不包括哪个总统?富兰克林罗斯福

27:2003年失事的美国飞船?哥伦比亚号

28:易卜生所著以娜拉为主人公的书?《玩偶之家》

29:下面哪首不是莫扎特的曲子?《蝴蝶夫人》

30:哪家公司在美国推出T型车?福特

31:60年代黑色幽默作品?《第22条军规》

32:俄国最后一位沙皇?尼古拉二世

33:亚历山大是哪国国王?马其顿

34:下面属于印象派画作的是?莫奈《睡莲》

35:下面哪本不是Agatha Christie的作品?《巴斯克维尔猎犬》

36:迅速夭折的美国《第十八修正案》主要内容是?禁酒

37:巴比伦首都位于今天的?伊拉克

38:《兰花草》的歌词出自?胡适《希望》

39:武当山在?湖北十堰

40:河套平原位于内蒙古和xx境内?宁夏

41:清朝哪位意大利传教士参与圆明园修建并影响宫廷绘画?他来到中国时哪位皇帝掌权?郎世宁/康熙

42:第一位获得诺贝尔文学奖的音乐人?鲍勃迪伦

43:《清明上河图》作者是?张择端

44:屠呦呦青蒿素治疗什么疾病?疟疾

45:直接描写法国大革命的著作是?《双城记》

46:《锦瑟》的作者?李商隐

47:欧盟的总部在?布鲁塞尔

48:铁幕演说谁发表的?丘吉尔

49:“天下兴亡,匹夫有责”最早由谁提出?顾炎武

50:

今年百科选择题出题方向大变,没怎么考参考书上的知识点,所以比较看平时积累和运气。大家以后备考选择题时要广撒网。

5 应用文

丝绸之路国际旅游博览会将在某中西部省会城市举行,请你为副市长写一篇致辞,不少于450字。内容应包括该博览会指导思想、宗旨和影响。

6 大作文

两种文化的冲突与融合(两种文化指人文社科和自然科学)

建议从以下方面展开:怎样加强人文社科的科学性以及自然科学的人文关怀?论述人文社科和自然科学融合的可能性、合理性以及如何促进两者间的融合。不少于800字。

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