10. anticorruption bureau
11. inaugural speech
12. empty nester
13.caller ID telephone
14. junk bond
15. European monetary integration
Life originated in the early seas less than a billion years after the Earth was formed. Yet another three billion years were to pass before the first plants and animals appeared on the continents. Life’s transition from the sea to the land was perhaps as much of an evolutionary challenge as was the genesis of life.
What forms of life were able to make such a drastic change in lifestyle? The traditional view of the first terrestrial organisms(陆生动植物）is based on megafossils—relatively large specimens of essentially whole plants and animals. Vascular plants(维管植物)，related to modern seed plants and ferns, left the first comprehensive megafossil record. Because of this，it has been commonly assumed that the sequence of terrestrialization reflected the evolution of modern terrestrial ecosystems. In this view, primitive vascular plats first colonized the margins of continental waters, followed by animals that fed on the plants, and lastly by animals that preyed on the plant-eaters. Moreover, the megafossils suggest that terrestrial life appeared and diversified explosively near the boundary between the Silurian (志留纪）and the Devonian (泥盆纪）periods，a little more than 400 million years ago.
Recently, however, paleontologists (古生物学者）have been taking a closer look at the sediments below this Silurian-Devonian geological boundary. It turns out that some fossils can be extracted from these sediments by putting the rocks in an acid bath. The technique has uncovered new evidence from sediments that were deposited near the shores of the ancient oceans-plant microfossils and microscopic pieces of small animals. In many instances the specimens are less than one-tenth of a millimeter in diameter. Although they were entombed in the rocks for hundreds of millions of years, many of the fossils consist of the organic remains of the organism.
These newly discovered fossils have not only revealed the existence of previously unknown organisms, but have also pushed back these dates for the invasion of land by multicellular organisms. Our views about the nature of the early plant and animal communities are now being revised. And with those revisions come new speculations about the first terrestrial life-forms.
读书是文明生活中人所共认的一种乐趣，极为无福享受此种乐趣的人所羡 慕。我们如把一生爱读书的人和一生不知读书的人比较一下，便能了解这一点。 凡是没有读书爱好的人，就空间而言，他简直是等于幽囚在周遭的环境里边。他的一生完全落于日常例行公事的圈禁中。他只有和少数几个朋友或熟人接触 谈天的机会，他只能看见眼前的景物，他没有逃出这所牢狱的法子。但在他拿 起一本书时，他已立刻走进了另一个世界。如若所拿的又是一部好书，则他便 已得到了一个和一位最善谈者接触的机会。这位善谈者引领他走进另外一个国 界，或另外一个时代，或向他倾吐自己胸中的不平，或和他讨论一个他从来不 知道的生活问题。一本古书使读者在心灵上和长眠已久的古人如相面对.当他 读下去时，他便会想像到这位古作家是怎样的形态和怎样的一种人，孟子和大 史家司马迁都表示这个意见：一个人在每天二十四小时中，能有两小时的功夫 撇开一切俗世烦扰，而走到另一个世界去游览一番，这种幸福自然是被无形牢 狱所拘囚的人们所极羡慕的。这种环境的变更，心理的效果上，其实等于出门旅行。
江西师范大学 MTI 真题下载（含英语翻译基础、翻译硕士英语和汉语写作与百科知识三门）：百度云（稍后）