I. Directions: Translate the following words, abbreviations or terminology into their target languages respectively. (30′)
1. Overseas remittance: 海外汇款；国外汇款
2. European Union Emission Trading Scheme: 欧盟排放交易体系
3. carbon sink: 碳汇
4. TPP Agreement: 跨太平洋伙伴关系协定 (Trans-Pacific Partnership)
5. COP 19: 联合国气候变化大会第19次缔约方大会 [ the 19th Conference of the Parties (COP19) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change]
6. Malthusian Theory of Population: 马尔萨斯人口论 ( 马尔萨斯主义以英国经济学家马尔萨斯为代表的资产阶级学派。产生于18世纪，马尔萨斯在其代表作《人口原则》和《政治经济学原理》中提出了“马尔萨斯人口论”，人类必须控制人口的增长)
7. sub-Saharan Africa: 撒哈拉以南非洲
8. Maastricht Treaty: 马斯特里赫特条约 (马斯特里赫特条约一般指欧洲联盟条约。《欧洲联盟条约（Treaty of Maastricht）》，它是于1991年12月9日至10日第46届欧洲共同体首脑会议上签署的条约，包括《欧洲经济与货币联盟条约》和《政治联盟条约》。这一条约为欧共体建立政治联盟和经济与货币联盟确立了目标与步骤，是欧洲联盟成立的基础）
9. Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea （DOC)：《中国南海缔约方行为公告》
11. the House of Lords：英国上议院
12. purchasing power parity：购买力平价
13. China-Britain Business Council (CBBC)：英中贸易协会
15. rep by pop：人口数决定代表数（representation by population）；人民代表
16. 创业板市场：Growth Enterprise Market
17. 中国共产党第十八届三中全会：the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the CPC (communist party of China)
18. 棱镜亊件:PRISM；the US surveillance program PRISM
19. 《本草纲目》：compendium of materia medica
20. 假冒及盗版产品：counterfeit and pirated products
21. 页岩气：shale gas
22. 土豪: rich rednecks；Beverly Hillbillies；upstart；rural rich；local tyrant; local lord
24. “脱光”（11月11日): ending the situation of being single; say goodbye to the single lives
25. 现房与期房: complete apartment and forward delivery housing
26. 老年痴呆: senile dementia; Alzheimer’s disease
27. 杜莎夫人蜡像馆: Madame Tussauds (蜡像馆是由蜡制雕塑家杜莎夫人建立的，杜莎夫人蜡像馆是全世界水平最高的蜡像馆之一，有众多世界名人的蜡像，其中恐怖屋最为出名)
28. 热岛效应: Urban Heat Island Effect (一个地区的气温高于周围地区的现象)
29. 《环球时报》:Global Times
30. 《史记》: Historical Records
II. Directions: Translate the following source texts into their target languages respectively. If the source text is in English, its target language is Chinese. If the source text is in Chinese, its target language is English. (120’)
Source Text 1:
The biographer should sternly confine himself to the functions as introducer and should give no more discussion than is clearly necessary for making the book an independent whole. A little analysis of motive may be necessary here and there, when for example, your hero has put his hand in somebody’s pocket and you have to demonstrate that his conduct was due to sheer absence of mind. But you must always remember that a single concrete fact were a saying into which man has put his soul is worth pages of psychological analysis. We may argue till Doom’s Day about Swift’s character, his singled phrase of dying like a poisoned rat in a hole, tells us more than all the commentators. The book should be the man himself speaking or acting, or nothing but the man. It should be such a portrait as reveals the essence of character. And the writer who gives anything that does not tell upon the general effect is like the portrait painter who allows the chairs and tables, or even the coat and cravat to distract attention from the vase. The really significant anecdote is often all that survives of a life. And such anecdotes must be made to tell properly instead of being hidden away in the wilderness of the common place. They should be a focus of interest instead of a fallible abstract for a book of miscellaneous. How much would be lost of Johnson if we suppressed the incident of the penance and to(*). It is such incidents that in books as often in life suddenly reveal to us all regions of sentiment, but never rise to the surface in the ordinary routine of our day.
Source Text 2:
The term genetically modified organism (GMO) refers to plants, microbes and animals with genes transferred from other species in order to produce certain novel characteristics (for example resistance to pests, or herbicides) and are produced by recombinant DNA technology. Four main sources of hazards of GMO are discussed by scientists worldwide:
those due to the new genes, and gene products introduced; 2) unintended effects inherent to the teclinology; 3) interactions between foreign genes and host genes; and 4) those arising from the spread of the introduced genes by ordinary cross-pollination as well as by horizontal gene transfer.
GM crops contain material, which is not present in them under natural conditions, and they form a part of our daily diet. To understand what effect they can have on us and on our animaJs, it is very important to study the influence of these GM plants in different organisms for several generations. At present, these studies are lackii.j from the scientific literature. Also, several detrimental effects of GM crops had been showed on the metabolism of animals. The hazard of GMO was shown for animals and the environment in many investigations. Earlier it was shown that consumption of GM food by animals led to the negative changes in their organisms. Experiments, conducted by A. Pusztai showed that potatoes modified by the insertion of the gene of snowdrop lectin (雪花莲凝集素),stunled the growth of rats, significantly affected some of their vital organs, including the kidneys, thymus (陶腺)，gastrocnemius muscles (聪肠肌）and others and damaged their intestines and their immune system.
Source Text 3:
科学是讲求实际的。科学是老老实实的学问，来不得半点虚假，需要付出艰巨的劳动。 同时，科学也需要创造，需要幻想，有幻想才能打破传统的束缚，才能发展科学。科学工作 者同志们，请你们不要把幻想让诗人独占了。嫦娥奔月，龙宫探宝， 《封神演义》上的许多 幻想，通过科学，今天大都变成了现实。伟大的天文学家哥白尼说：人的天职在勇于探索真 理。我国人民历来是勇于探索，勇于创造，勇于革命的。我们一定要打破陈规，披荆斩棘， 开拓我国科学发展的道路。既异想天开，又实事求是，这是科学工作者特有的风格，让我们 在无穷的宇宙长河中去探索无穷的真理吧！（选自郭沫若演讲辞-《科学的春天》翻译硕士真题网注）
参考译文1：Science is pragmatic. Scientific knowledge is honest and does not allow for false that needs to be done arduous labor. Meanwhile, science also need to create the need fantasies, illusions can break the shackles of tradition, they can develop science. Scientific workers Comrades, you should not allow poets to monopolize the fantasy. Moon, dragon palace Granted, the many illusions “Feng Shen Romance” through science, most of today become a reality. Great astronomers Copernicus : the courage to explore the truth in the vocation. Chinese people have always been courageous exploration and courage, the courage to revolution. We must break stereotypes, the way to open up the country’s scientific development. Not only wishful thinking, seek truth from facts, this is the unique style of scientific workers. Let us explore the endless river of infinite universe, the truth!
参考译文2：Science is practical learning, which tolerates no falseness and demands tremendous efforts. Meanwhile, it also demands creation and fantasy. Only fantasy can cut off the bound of the tradition and develop science. Ladies and gentlemen doing science work! Don’t let poets take advantage of fantasy alone. Via science, many fantasies in ancient China have come true. Such fantasies includes, for example, the one in which the lady Chang E who swallowed elixir stolen from her husband flew to the moon, the one in which Monkey Sun, the famous hero in one of the Chinese classic mythical novels, dove into the “dragon’s palace ” in the deep water to search for treasures, and those described in The List of Conferred Gods, another Chinese classic mythical novel. The great astronomer Kobany (哥白尼) said man’s bounden duty lay in the bold seeking of truth. Chinese people have been bold in exploration, creation and revolution all through the ages. We must break with convention and chop a way through difficulties for the development of science in China. It is characteristic of science workers both to indulge in the wildest fantasy and seek truth from facts. Let’s seek the infinite truth in the boundless space!
Source Text 4:
上海自贸区是中国政府设立在上海的区域性自由贸易园区，该试验区于2013年8月22日经国务院正式批准设立，于9月29日上午10时正式挂牌开张。无数的创业者都在问上海自贸区到底能带给自己什么?自贸区当然不只是金融大鳄、巨头的自贸区，同样也孕育着小创业者的机会。换言之，这里不是一个靠优惠创富的特区，而是一个真正的属于冒险者的天堂。睁大双眼，遍地机遇。比如，大量地优质外国文化产品、娱乐形式和文化领域的人才将流通和聚集到上海，这将有利于这些外资文化公司在华拓展业务，丰富产品和服务，开拓中国的文化市场。这对于国内相对落后的文化娱乐产业都将有促进作用。文化产业的概念很大，里头有无数个细分市场，每一个细分市场不仅自身能赚钱，并且都有可能产生无数的衍生行业。举个例子，假如米高梅电影公司来华投资开设公司，这家在 华公司投拍一部好莱坞大片，将有望更多地借助中国企业的支持。如戏服订购租凭、相关周边产品需要中国的渠道商分销、就连电影城周围的盒饭供应都是一桩好生意。据说上海几家专为餐饮店提供服务的演出小分队正在苦修 英文，而一些舞蹈院校加派了社交舞、钢管舞等课程，以应对未来消费者和从业者的滞求。因此，关键在于作为小鱼的创业者能不能发现大鱼的需求，在它吞掉你之前，找到自己的价值，发展壮大。