I. Directions: Translate the following words, abbreviations or terminology into their target languages respectively. (30′)
1. the 100,000 Strong Initiative
3. Occupy Central
4. Transatlantic Trade Investment Partnership (TTIP)
5. chemical oxygen demand (COD)
6. coal equivalent .
7. a lame duck
9. Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation Program (GMS)
10. The House of Commons
11. Speaker of the House (U.S. Congress)
12. devolution of power
13. UK Trade and Investment (UKTI)
15, public private partnership (PPP)
23. 技术转让 ,
II. Directions: Translate the following source texts into their target languages respectively. If the source text is in English, its target language is Chinese. If the source text is in Chinese, its target language is English. (120’)
Source Text 1:
We usually classify literature – imaginative literature (excluding nonfiction prose)-into the following genres or classes: (1) prose fiction; (2) poetry，and (3) drama. These three genres have many common characteristics* All are art forms，each with its/ own requirements of structure and style. In varying degrees，all the genres are dramatic and imaginative; they have at least some degree of action, or are based in part on dramatic situations.
Imaginative literature differs from textbooks，historical and biographical works，and news articles，all of which describe or interpret facts. While literature is related to the truths of human life, it may be based on situations that have never occurred，and which may never occur. This is not to say that imaginative literature is not truthful，but rather that its truth is to life and human nature, not necessarily to the detailed world of reportorial, scientific, and historical facts in which we all live.
Although the three main genres have much in common, they also differ in many ways. Prose fiction, or narrative fiction, is in prose form and includes novels, short stories，myths， parables，romances, and epics. These works generally focus on one or a few major characters who undergo some kind of change as they meet other characters or deal with problems or difficulties in their lives. Poetry，in contrast to prose fiction, is much more economical in the use of words，and it relies heavily on imagery，figurative language， rhythm and sound, Drama (or plays) is the form of literature designed to be performed by actors. Like fiction, drama may focus on a single character or a small number of characters， and it presents fictional events as if they were happening in the present, to be witnessed by a group of people composing an audience. Some dramas employ much of the imagery, rhythm3 and sound of poetry.
Source Text 2:
It must be stressed that a characteristic aspect of the present time is that science is exercising a decisive influence on technology, creating new problems for it, guiding its development and conditioning its progress. As a result, science is tending to become a direct force of industry. Scientific theories penetrate technological processes.
In its turn, the development of science is strongly influenced by the astounding progress of modern technology, which places at its disposal previously undreamed of means: apparatus of high precision and of tremendous power, such as particle accelerators nuclear reactors, electronic computers, etc. 47)The improvement of industrial technology makes possible the realization of high intensity phenomena such as pressure, temperature, very high tension or nearly ideal conditions of vacuum, often indispensable to accurate experimental results.
Science does not, generally, affect industry directly but does so through the intermediary of technology which places at industry’s disposal new improved and powerful machines that increase the productivity of labour. 48)It improves technological processes, introduces new forms of energy, creates new materials not provided by nature, introduces new and varied means of transport, communication and telecommunication control and telecontrol. 49)All these means amazingly increase the productivity of labour by substituting human forces for those of nature.
The raising of the technical level of industry, therefore, constitutes a major imperative of our time presented to science, which finds itself in the vanguard of social progress.
Source Text 3:
提起新加坡，许多中国人会联想到高效政府、良好秩序、美食、旅游胜地——这 些正面的标签已被不少游记、随笔考察报告贴在了这个接近赤道的岛国身上。7月中 旬的一天，我从夏日炎炎的北京飞抵樟宜机场，来到心仪已久的岛国，开始了新加坡 之旅。
作为一个国家，新加坡很小，小到你只需几天就能游遍她所有的景点。但作为一 个多种族并存、高度开放的社会，新加坡很大，大到能够容纳各种文化在这里并行繁衍。几天的走马观花下来，即使用最挑剔的眼光，我对新加坡的基本评价也还是一个 简单的字：好。用一句话说就是：这个年轻的国家，实实在在地取得了物质文明和精神文明建设的双丰收。
Source Text 4:
埃博拉是一种十分罕见的病毒，1976年在苏丹南部和刚果（金）的埃博拉河地区 发现它的存在后，弓丨起医学界的广泛关注和重视，“埃博拉”由此而得名。虽然埃博 拉疫情在西非地区迅速蔓延，但是科学家们至今仍然缺少一些关键的病毒基因数据， 以回答这样一个引起众人担忧猜测的问题；埃博拉病毒是否正在变得更具传染性或致 死性?病毒是否正在发生一些改变，使自己能够避开诊断性测试或疫苗?成千上万份 埃博拉感染患者的血液样本目前已经储存在非洲和欧洲的冷藏库内，至今仍未被研究过：直到这一期《科学》期刊交付印刷的时候，几个拥有最新的病毒基因组序列信息的研究团队仍然没有将这些序列信息公诸于众。