I. Directions: Translate the following words, abbreviations or terminology into their target languages respectively. (30’)
1. CPI: 居民消费价格指数(Consumer Price Index)
2. SME: 中小企业(small and medium enterprises)
3. WWF: 世界野生动物基金会（World Wildlife Fund）
4. ISO: 国际标准化组织 (International Organization for Standardization)
5. CIF: 到岸价格(cost insurance and freight)
6. Foxconn: 富士康
7. MOFCOM: 中华人民共和国商务部(Ministry of Commerce of the Peaple’s Republic of China)
8. TPP: 跨太平洋战略经济伙伴协定(Trans-Pacifc Partnership)；跨太平洋伙伴协议
9. IPCC（Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change）:政府间气候变化专门委员会
10. Chemical Oxygen Demand: 化学需氧量
11. the “100,000” Strong Initiative by President Obama: 奥巴马政府的“十万强计划”;奥巴马总统发起的10万人留学中国计划 (由美国政府发起，但资金来源主要是企业、民间机构以及慈善家，而非联邦预算，该计划由奥巴马政府积极推动，预计在未来四年内招揽10万名美国学生到中国留学)
12. carbon foot print: 碳足迹
13. debt ceiling: 债务上限; 债务最高限额
14. solar photovoltaics: 太阳光电；太阳能光伏发电
15. Standard & Poor’s: 标准普尔(一家世界权威金融分析机构,总部位于美国纽约市,由亨利·瓦纳姆·普尔(Mr Henry Varnum Poor)于1860年创立)
16. 非关税壁垒: non-tariff barriers
17. 平板电视: Flat Panel Display
18. 廉租房: low-rent housing
19. 经济二次触底: bottom out for the Second time; hit bottom for the second time
20. 海选: (first/initial) audition [“网络海选”相应的英文表达为“Internet audition (system)”]
21. 剩男剩女: leftover women and men; Leftover singles
22. 地沟油: illegally recycled waste cooking oil ; recycled cooking oil; Gutter oil
23. 潜规则: casting couch; hidden rule; be forced to have sex with influential figures to promote one’s career
24. 中国载人航天计划: Chinese manned space program
25. 紧缩性货币政策: Tight monetary policy
26. 云计算: Cloud Computing
27. 民心工程: projects in the public interest; pro-people projects
28. 智能城市: Smart City
29. 《海峡两岸经济合作框架协议》: Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement
30. 《中庸》: The Doctrine of Mean
II. Directions: Translate the following source texts into their target languages respectively. If the source text is in English, its target language is Chinese. If the source text is in Chinese, its target language is English. (120’)
Source Text 1:
High-speed ground transportation (HSGT) technologies with vehicle speeds exceeding 150 mph can be divided into two basic categories:
High-speed rail (HSR) systems, with top speeds between 150 and 200 mph, use steel wheels on steel rails, as with traditional railroads, but can achieve higher speeds because of the design of both the rail bed and cars.
High-speed magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) systems, with top speeds between 250 and 300 mph, use forces of attraction or repulsion from powerful magnets placed in either the vehicle or the guideway beneath it both to lift the vehicle above the guideway and to propel it forward. A MAGLEV vehicle can be likened to a flying train or a guided aircraft.
If linked effectively with highways and air service, HSGT technologies – particularly MAGLEV – could have a significant impact on congestion in the future.
When comparing HSR with MAGLEV technologies, MAGLEV appears to be the technology of choice. Though the new generation of HSR technology can reach commercial speeds of up to 186 mph, additional increases in speed pose great engineering problems, suggesting that rail transportation is a mature technology. MAGLEV technology, on the other hand, is in its infancy and will improve substantially with additional engineering.
参考答案：车速超过每小时150英里的高速地面交通系统技术，基本上可以分为两类：一种是最高速度每小时150英里到200英里(240-320千米)的高速铁路系统，与传统铁路一样，在钢轨上用钢轮。但是由于铁轨路床和车厢的设计，可以达到更高的速度.另一个是高速孩悬浑系统，最高速度每小时250-300英里<400-480千米)，利用安装在列车内或者下面导轨内强大磁铁的吸引力或斥力，把列车抬起 来，悬浮在导轨上，推动列车前进。磁悬浮列车可以比作飞行的列车或制导的飞机。若同公路运输和 空中运输有效地连接起来，那么高速地面交通技术，特别是磁悬浮技术，对解决未来的交通拥挤可能 发浑重大作用。若将高速铁路技术同磁悬浮技术作比较，磁悬浮似乎是首选。虽然新一代的高速铁路 技术能够达到每小时186英里的商业速度，但是要额外提高速度就面临许多工程方面的间题，这表明， 铁路运输已经是一种成熟的技术。反之，磁悬浮技术则尚处于幼年阶段，将会随着工程技术的发展大 大改善。
Source Text 2:
The fortunate people in the world—the only really fortunate people in the world, in my mind, — are those whose work is also their pleasure. The class is not a large one, not nearly so large as it is often represented to be; and authors are perhaps one of the most important elements in its composition. They enjoy in this respect at least a real harmony of life. To my mind, to be able to make your work your pleasure is the one class distinction in the world worth striving for; and I do not wonder that others are inclined to envy those happy human beings who find their livelihood in the gay effusions of their fancy, to whom every hour of labor is an hour of enjoyment, to whom repose however necessary—is a tiresome interlude, and even a holiday is almost deprivation. Whether a man writes well or ill, has much to say or little, if he cares about writing at all, he will appreciate the pleasures of composition. To sit at one’s table on a sunny morning, with four clear hours of uninterruptible security, plenty of nice white paper, and a Squeezer pen—that is true happiness. The complete absorption of the mind upon an agreeable occupation—what more is there than that to desire? What does it matter what happens outside? The House of Commons may do what it likes, and so may the House of Lords. The heathen may rage furiously in every part of the globe. The bottom may be knocked clean out of the American market. Consols may fall and suffragettes may rise. Never mind, for four hours, at any rate, we will withdraw ourselves from a common, ill-governed, and disorderly world, and with the key of fancy unlock that cupboard where all the good things of the infinite are put away. （本文出自 The Joys of Writing by Winston Churchill 写作的乐趣–温斯顿·丘吉尔 翻译硕士真题网注）
参考译文：在我看来，世上幸运的人——世上唯一真正幸运的人，是那些以工作为乐的人。这个阶层的人并不多，还没有人们常说的那样多。也许，作家是其中最重要的组成部 分之一。就幸运而言，他们至少享受着生活中真正的和谐美。依我看，能使工作成为乐趣，是世人值得为之奋斗的一种崇高的荣誉；而且，我毫不怀疑别人会羡慕这 些幸福的人，因为他们在快乐地喷涌的幻想中找到了生计，对他们来说，每劳动一小时，就是享受一小时，而休息——无论多么有必要——是令人讨厌的插曲，甚至 度假也几乎成了一种损失。无论写得好坏，写成多少，只要在意，就可尝到谋章布局的乐趣。在一个阳光明媚的早晨，临桌而坐，整整四个小时不受打扰，有足够数 量的雪白稿纸，还有一支“挤压式”妙笔——那才叫真正的幸福。全心全意地投入一项令人愉快的职业——此愿足矣！外面发生什么事又有何妨？下院想干什么就干 什么吧，上院也可如此。异教徙可以在全球各地大发作。美国市场可以彻底崩溃。证券可以下跌；女权运动可以兴起。没有关系，不管怎么说，我们有四个小时可以 躲开这俗气的、治理不善的、杂乱无章的世界，并且用想象这把钥匙，去开启藏有大千世界一切宝物的小橱。
Source Text 3:
参考答案：The Jinjiang River was called the Chengdu Erjiang (two rivers) during the Qin and Han dynasties, including the inner river Pijiang and outer river Jianjiang. Since the Han Dynasty the two rivers have become known by a shared poetic name, Jinjiang, meaning Brocade River. According to historical record, Sichuan weavers often washed their brocade in the two rivers because the brocade became more lustrous and bright after being washed with the water. This is why the two rivers became known as the Brocade River. This naming is also related to Dujiangyan. In the ancient Shu times, the Minjiang River became muddy and ran off rampantly, turning the area into marshes after it entered the Chengdu Plain, making farming on the plain impossible. The Dujiangyan Water Project made use of the two rivers as water diversion channels for irrigation. As a result, the muddy waters became clear enough for local weavers to wash their brocade. Both the Dujiangyan and Jinjiang were cradles of the urban civilization of Chengdu, since the former converted the submerged Chengdu Plain into an expanse of fertile farmland and the latter brought prosperity and affluence to the city of Chengdu. The beauty of Chengdu attributes to the wonderful natural conditions of Jinjiang, which can be described by a line from a Chinese poem “The water and the sky are blue without a seed of dust, the scenery and climate are even better than Shaanxi.”
Source Text 4:
参考译文：Most scientists believe that oil was formed from the anaerobic decay of minute creatures and plants in the sea millions of billions of years ago. The dead bodies of the creatures rotted and formed layers of slime after millions of years, and through pressure and the resulting rising temperature, these layers turned into oil. Oil fraction (forms what is called the oil mixture) and its other by-products are countless: gasoline used by cars, diesel used by trains, buses and trucks, aviation gasoline, lubricating oil for all kinds of engines, heavy oil for power stations and ships, asphalt for building roads, chemical oil products for the manufacture of plastic, synthetic fiber or even synthetic food and so on. Today, a world without oil products is unimaginable.
I. Vocabulary and grammar (30’)
Directions: Beneath each sentence there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Choose the answer that best completes the sentence. Mark your answers on your answer sheet.
1. The forests were very dry because of the dry spell.
A. tree line B. explorers C. draft D. drought
2. Self-denial is one of their tenets.
A. reasons B. doctrines C. renters D. figures
3. The Iranians did not see eye to eye with the Americans about releasing the hostages.
A. view B. scare C. agree D. quarrel
4. The most pressing problem any economic system faces is how to use its scarce resources.
A. puzzling B. difficult C. terrifying D. urgent
5. The firm of Bonnin and Morris in Philadelphia was probably the first American company to manufacture porcelain.
A. silverware B. crystal
C. china D. linen
6. Children who come from deprived families are frequently poor readers.
A. without respect B. without experience C. without funds D. without legs
7. They raised a hue and cry just outside the gate.
A. surrendered B. built a temporary shelter
C. made a great deal of noise D. flew the flag
8. Carlo showed us his diagram if the machine.
A. insides B. screws C. sketch D. masterpiece
9. The beggar solicited passers-by for money.
A. requested B. scowled at C. bargained with D. chased
10. He took on so much work, he had no time for pleasure.
A. allowed B. increased C. accomplished D. assumed
11. Essentially, a theory is an abstract, symbolic representation of _________reality
A. what it is conceived B. that is conceived
C. what is conceived to be D. that is being conceived of
12. Using many symbols makes _______ to put a large amount of information on a single map.
A. possible B. it is possible
C. it possible D. that possible
13. A vacuum tube is a glass tube from which most of the air has been removed, _______ an almost complete vacuum.
A. creating B. creates C. is creating D. it creates
14. Booker T. Washington, acclaimed as a leading educator at the turn of the century, _____ of a school that later became the Tuskegee Institute.
A. took charge B. taking charge C. charge was taken D. taken charge
15. True hibernation takes place only among _______ animals.
A. whose blood is warm B. blood warm
C. warm-blooded D. they have warm blood
16. In central Georgia, archaeological evidence indicates that Native Americans first inhabited the area________.
A. since thirteen centuries B. thirteen centuries ago
C. the previous thirteen centuries D. thirteen centuries were before
17. In ________, the advent of the telephone, radio, and television has made rapid long-distance communication possible.
A. one hundred years later B. one hundred years ago
C. the one hundred years since D. the last one hundred years
18. ________, The Yearling, won a Pulitzer Prize.
A. Marjorie Rawlings’ best work was B. Marjorie Rawlings’ best work
C. Her best work was Marjorie Rawlings’ D. That Marjorie Rawlings’ best work
19. Abstraction goes into the making of any work of art, ________ or not.
A. whether the artist being aware of it B. the artist is being aware whether
C. whether the artist is aware of it D. the artist is aware whether
20. Not until 1931 ________ the official anthem of the United States
A. “The Star-spangled Banner” did become
B. when “The Star-spangled Banner” became
C. did “The Star-Spangle Banner” become
D. became “The Star-spangled Banner”
II. Reading comprehension (40’)
Section 1 Multiple choice (20’)
Directions: In this section there are reading passages followed by multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your answer sheet.
Justice and injustice in criminal adjudication are more than abstract concept; in modern America each term conjures up its own paradigm image. Justice occurs in a somber courtroom where a robber reaches a legal decision. Injustice is a bloodthirsty mob bearing lit torches, intimidating on the doors of the jail desperate to wreak revenge upon the suspected wrongdoer held within.
This image of injustice provides many normative insights. One that courts have frequently drawn is that in criminal adjudication emotion is unalterably opposed to reason and thus to justice itself. Taking this principle a step farther, courts have urged that the more a legal issue might provoke popular rage, the harder courts must work to insulate the legal decision from emotive influence. The classic example is capital sentencing, an occasion which evokes strong emotions. Here the Supreme Court has worked to ensure that “any decision to impose the death sentence be, and appear to be, based on reason rather than caprice or emotion”. The Court has, over a period of years, undertaken an extensive regulatory project aimed at suppressing emotive influence in capital cases by mandating rationalistic ruled to guide sentencing. This insistence upon the injustice of all emotion stems from a misconception of emotion and its influence upon criminal punishment. Although the mob at jail scene illustrates that anger can lead to injustice, it does not support the proposition that all decisions influenced by anger are morally tainted. Anger can be justified and have moral decision making is complex; untangling it involved a close examination of emotion than the law has generally undertaken.
This has obvious significance for criminal law as a form of social concord. But it is also important or its alleged role as a restraint on power. Criminal law does little or nothing to restrict the efforts of the various professionals now responsible for preventing and reshaping deviant behavior. Rather it is them who have colonized its territory, as in the welfare of the professional authority that legitimates them and because they enter into the enabling role of the state as dispenser of benefits. This is to say nothing of other forms of market and bureaucratic power and social control exercised by groups other than government. Under these conditions the alleged protections of the criminal law seem premised on a nineteenth century view of the state and society; those interested in the law in the twentieth century must look to the potential of administrative law rather than to criminal law. Either way critical writers would be wasting their time here.
Whilst there is a lot of truth in this picture of the declining importance of criminal law, it is sensible not to exaggerate its loss of functions. From a critical point of view it would seem to retain a crucial ideological significance as being the form of closet touch with public. It is hard to credit the idea that these central liberal (bourgeois) notions have been displaced by the newer disciplines and strategies.
1.The reason for the insulation of emotions in criminal adjudication is due to_______.
A. the severity of the possible punishment
B. the social concern for the adjudication
C. the Supreme Court decision
D. the ideal of keeping order
2. According to the author’s opinion, the origination of the insistence upon the injustice of all emotion is __________.
A. that emotion is inevitably against reason and justice
B. the misunderstanding of emotion and its influence
C. the courts’ hard work to prevent the legal decision from emotive influence
D. that the death sentence was based on reason through suppressing emotive influence
3. Regards to the role of anger in adjudication, which statement is INCORRECT?
A. Only part of the decisions is influenced by anger, though it can bring biases.
B. Though moral decision-making is complex, anger can be justified
C. Some decisions influenced by anger can be morally tainted
D. Because of anger, moral decision-making is quite complicated
4. The declining importance of criminal law is a consequence of ___________.
A. the loss of importance of criminal law and increase of interest in government as a benefit dispenser
B. the exaggeration of the importance of criminal law and decrease of interest in government affairs
C. the new trend in legal studies
D. the new ideas pouring out in the administrative law field
5. The review is primarily ___________.
A. dubious B. objective C. partial D. critical
The Eskimos believe that a human being is made up of a body, a soul, and a name, and it not complete unless it has all three. This belief has a great effect on the Eskimo’s daily life and runs like a golden thread through the Eskimo culture.
As for the soul of man, the Eskimos do not claim to know exactly what it is—but then, who does? They see it, however, as the beginning of life, the initiator of all activities within a being, and the energy without which life cannot continue.
An Eskimo’s name is believed to have a life of its own. It combines all the good qualities and talents of all the persons who have been called by it. One may imagine it as a procession of ancestors stretching into the dim past and surrounding the present bearer of the name with a sort of magic protective aura.
Many Eskimos believe that a newborn baby cries because it wants its name and will not be complete until it gets it. Immediately after a birth the angakok (medicine man) or some wise elders of the tribe gather to name the child. The name that is selected must be the name of someone who has died recently. The choice may in some cases call for much conjuring and soothsaying, and in other cases be self-evident. When my son was born, everyone realized that it was his great-grandfather, Mequsaq, who had died a few months before, who had been reborn in him. The newborn infant had a slight squint in the very same eye that old Mequsaq had lost to the cannibals in Baffin Land. This was taken as a sign from the name spirit that the baby should be called Mequsaq.
When, in 1927, I returned to Thule for a visit, I found that no fewer than five little girls had been named Navarana after my dear late wife. So great was the confidence in Navarana’s ability and character that there was believed to be enough for all five children. It was thus a beautiful and touching memorial to her, though a slightly expensive one for me, since I had to give all the little girls presents.
More often he newborn child was given several names, so as to have the highest possible protection, and certain names became great favorites. Calling so many by the same name was often very confusing. This custom was continued in Christianized Greenland. In the little settlement of Kook, in the Upernavik district, all five hunters were called Gaba (after the archangel Gabriel). I was told that some years before, a great man called Gaba had died, and after his death several unmistakable signs indicated that his spirit was still active. To please the spirit, many boy babies were named after it. In order to distinguish between them they called them “fat Gaba,” “Little Gaba,” etc.
A Polar Eskimo would never mention himself by name. Doing so could break the name’s magic protection. And since the ever jealous spirits are always listening, it could cause great trouble. It seemed strange to me in the beginning, when I met somebody in the dark of winter, that I was never able to get any information other than “Oanga” (it is I). Finally I learned to know them all by their voices.
The Eskimo people believe also in the magic protective power of amulets, However, it isn’t the amulet itself that protects from harm—it is the properties that the amulet possesses. It is almost always the boys and the men who are given amulets, for they are the ones who expose themselves to all the dangers of nature while the women stay at home. When a girl is given amulets, it is usually to insure that she have strong sons. Great care goes into the selection of amulets. My wife Navarana carried a little ball of polished wood with her always. Wood cannot feel pain, and possession of it means great wealth; thus it is thought that a wooden amulet can insure the owner a rich and painless life.
One of the most popular amulets is the foot of a raven, which is put on a string around the necks of newborn babies. This is believed to be a very valuable charm because no bird can get along under as hard conditions as does the raven. The raven finds food where other animals starve to death—it can live on almost nothing.
At the end of my first walrus hunt at Thule, Ayorsalik, one of the hunters, decided that raven meat was to be eaten in my honor. The purpose of the raven feast, he said, was to make sure that the good luck I had had that morning would continue indefinitely.
Two of the younger men shot three ravens that had been hovering expectantly near our campfire. Ayorsalik out the pot on to boil, and the ravens were skinned and cooked.
Their taste was revolting, and later I ate that bird only in times of great hunger. On this occasion Ayorsalik handed me all three hearts and livers with his fingers; they went down, but they almost came up again. I don’t know whether this ritual had any effect. But later on, whenever I had sizable game, Ayorsalik claimed I would lose the ravens’ power if I were not to share with him.
Another interesting custom of the Eskimos is their ceremony of reverence for ancestors. On the rock of Agpat, near Thule, where the burial ground was, both men and women would sit for hour after hour in quiet meditation. Dressed in their finest clothing, they would stare out over the horizon without moving. They believed that during this stillness they received the wisdom of their ancestors. It is the nearest thing to religious devotion I have seen among them, and it is, I think, the most beautiful form of worship I have ever seen.
To the Eskimo, nature is full of evil spirits ready to work ill if a sin or breach of taboo is committed. When a tribe is afflicted with sickness or bad weather or starvation, it is up to the angakok to find out how the people, knowingly or unknowingly, have offended the spirits. He can summon his helping spirits, he can travel to the underworld, under the sea, and through rocks, and thus find out where the trouble is.
Essentially, angakoks are people who are experienced in the state of trance. I have often observed even the people serving in our house at Thule in a state of trance, sometimes for days on end. To understand the Eskimos, it is necessary to remember the long depressing winter with its black darkness and its aura of lurking evil, and the summer with its perpetual sunshine that wearies the mind and confuses the senses. Every fall we had a veritable epidemic of evil spirits along with the storms and the darkness of winter setting in. There was always panic at this time.
The Eskimos know no benevolent god. They believe that the spirits of the angakoks and the protective spells of names and amulets are their only defense against a cold and hostile land.
6. If asked “Who is it?” an Eskimo would answer only “It is I,” because______.
[A] he would not want anyone to know who he was
[B] if he said his own name he would break its spell
[C] he did not know his actual name
[D] Both A and B.
7. There is evidence in the passage that the author’s wife had______.
[A] won the Eskimos’ approval during several visits
[B] many names
[C] been accepted by the Eskimos only because of their love for her husband.
[D] been an Eskimo herself
8. According to the passage, Eskimos depend most heavily on______.
[A] evil spirits
[B] charms and magic
[C] a helpful god
9. The word “revolting” in paragraph 12 means______.
10. The Eskimo believed that sitting quietly near their buried ancestors_______.
[A] was the best way to express faith in God
[B] helped the hunters to find food
[C] gave them the wisdom of their ancestors
[D] was the best way to pay tribute to the dead.
Section 2 Answering questions (20’)
Directions: Read the following passages and then answer IN COMPLETE SENTENCES the questions which follow each passage. Use only information from the passage you have just read and write your answer in the corresponding space in your answer sheet.
What do we mean by leisure, and why should we assume that it represents a problem to be solved by the arts? The great ages of art were not conspicuous for their leisure-at least, art was not an activity associated with leisure. It was a craft like any other, concerned with the making of necessary things. Leisure, in the present meaning of the word, did not exist. Leisure, before the Industrial Revolution meant no more than “time” or “opportunity”; “If your leisure serv’d, I would speak with you”, says one of Shakespeare’s characters. Phrases which we still use, such as “at your leisure”, preserve this original meaning.
But when we speak of leisure nowadays, we are not thinking of securing time or opportunity to do something; time is heavy on our hands, and the problem is how to fill it. Leisure no longer signifies a space with some difficulty secured against the pressure of events: rather it is a pervasive emptiness for which we must invent occupations-Leisure is a vacuum, a desperate state of vacancy–a vacancy of mind and body. It has been commandeered by the sociologists and the psychologists: it is a problem.
Our diurnal existence is divided into two phases, as distinct as day and night. We call them work and play. We work so many hours a day, and, when we have allowed the necessary minimum for such activities as eating and shopping, the rest we spend in various activities which are known as recreations, an elegant word which disguises the fact that we usually do not even play in our hours of leisure, but spend them in various forms of passive entertainment or entertainment–not football but watching football matches; not acting, but theatre-going; not walking, but riding in a motor coach.
We need to make, therefore, a hard-and-fast distinction not only between work and play but, equally, between active play and passive entertainment. It is, I suppose, the decline of active play—of amateur sport—and the enormous growth of purely receptive entertainment which has given rise to a sociological interest in the problem. If the greater part of the popu1ation, instead of indulging in sport, spend their hours of leisure ‘viewing’ television programmes, there will inevitably be a decline in health and physique. And, in addition, there will be a psychological problem, for we have yet to trace the mental and moral consequences of a prolonged diet of sentimental or sensational spectacles on the screen. There is, if we are optimistic, the possibility that the diet is too thin and unnourishing to have much permanent effect on anybody. Nine films out of ten seem to leave absolutely no impression on the mind or imagination of those who see them: few people can give a coherent account of the film they saw the week before last, and at longer intervals they must rely on the management to see that they do not sit through the same film twice.
We have to live art if we would be affected by art. We have to paint rather than look at paintings, to play instruments rather than go to concerts, to dance and sing and act ourselves, engaging all our senses in the ritual and discipline of the arts. Then something may begin to happen to us: to work upon our bodies and our souls.
It is only when entertainment is active, participated in, practiced, that it can properly be called play, and as such it is a natural use of leisure. In that sense play stands in contrast to work, and is usually regarded as an activity that alternates with work. It is there that the most fundamental error enters conception of daily life.
Work itself is not a single concept. We say quite generally that we work in order to make a living: to earn, that is to say, sufficient tokens which we can exchange for food and shelter and all the other needs of our existence. But some of us work physically, tilling the land, minding the machines, digging the coal; others work mentally, keeping accounts, inventing machines, teaching and preaching, managing and governing. There does not seem to be any factor common to all these diverse occupations, except that they consume our time, and leave us little leisure.
We may next observe that one man’s profession or work is often another man’s recreation or play. The merchant at the week-end becomes a hunter (he has not yet taken to mining); the clerk becomes a gardener; the machine-tender becomes a breeder of bull—terriers. There is, of course, a sound instinct behind such transformations. The body and mind are unconsciously seeking compensation–muscular coordination, mental integration. But in many cases a dissociation is set up and the individual leads a double life–one half Jekyll, the other half Hyde. There is a profound moral behind that story of Stevenson’s for the compensation which a disintegrated personality may seek will often be of an anti-social nature. The Nazi party, for example, in its early days was largely recruited from the bored–not much from the unemployed as from the street-corner society of listless hooligans
Scientific studies have been made of street-corner society, out of which crime, gangsterdom, and fascism inevitably develop. It is a society with leisure–that is to say, spare time–and without compensatory occupation. It does not need a Satan to find mischief for such idle hands to do. They will spontaneously itch to do something: muscles have a life of their own unless they are trained to purposeful actions. Actions, or rather activities, are the obvious reflex to leisure; they consume it, and leave the problem solved.
But work is also activity, and if we reach the conclusion that all our time must be filled with one activity or another, the distinction between work and play becomes rather meaningless, and what we mean by play is merely a change of occupation. We pass from one form of activity to another; one we call work, and for that we receive pay; the other we call play, and for that we receive no pay–on the contrary, we probably pay a subscription.
1. The author points out two kinds of danger that may arise from the misuse of leisure. One of them is the result of purely passive entertainment; the other results when work and play are not properly coordinated What are the two dangers? Which of them is particularly harmful to society?
2. The author says that most films are not good enough to leave a permanent impression on our minds. Is this, in his opinion, a good thing or a bad thing? In what way?
3. What, in the author’s opinion, is the real difference between work and play? Or is there no difference at all between them? .
History tells us that in ancient Babylon, the cradle of our civilization, the people tried to build a tower that would reach to heaven. But the tower became the tower of Babel, according to the Old Testament, when the people were suddenly caused to speak different languages. In modern New York City, a new tower, that of the United Nations Building, thrusts its shining mass skyward. But the realization of the UN’s aspirations—and with it the hopes of the peoples of the world—is threatened by our contemporary Babel: about three thousand different languages are spoken throughout the world today, without counting the various dialects that confound communication between peoples of the same land.
In China, for example, hundreds of different dialects are spoken; people of some villages have trouble passing the time of day with the inhabitants of the next town. In the new African state of Ghana, five million people speak fifty different dialects. In India more than one hundred languages are spoken, of which only fourteen are recognized as official. To add to the confusion, as the old established empires are broken up and new states are formed, new official tongues spring up at an increasing rate.
In a world made smaller by jet travel, man is still isolated from many of his neighbors by the Babel barrier of multiplying languages. Communication is blocked daily in scores of ways. Travelers find it difficult to know the peoples of other nations. Scientists are often unable to read and benefit from the work being carried on by men of science in other countries. The aims of international trade, of world accord, of meetings between nations, are blocked at every turn; the work of scholars, technologists, and humanists is handicapped. Even in the shining new tower of the United Nations in New York, speeches and discussions have to be translated and printed in the five official UN languages—English, French, Spanish, Russian and Chinese. Confusion, delay, suspicion, and hard feelings are the products of the diplomatic Babel.
The chances for world unity are lessened if in the literal sense of the phrase, we do not speak the same language. We stand in dire need of a common tongue a language that would cross national barriers, one simple enough to be universally learned by travelers, businessmen, government representatives, scholars, and even by children in school.
Of course, this isn’t a new idea. Just as everyone is against sin, so everyone is for a common language that would further communication between nations. What with one thing and another—our natural state of drift as human beings, our rivalries, resentments, and jealousies as nations—we have up until now failed to take any action. I propose that we stop just talking about it, as Mark Twain said of the weather, and do something about it. We must make the concerted, massive effort it takes to reach agreement on the adoption of a single, common auxiliary tongue.
Let’s take a quick look at the realities of the problem. One of the main barriers to the adoption of the common language is the fact that there is Babel even among the possible languages we can choose. A number of different simplified languages vie for the spot of the language, and their respective advocates defend and attack with the fervor of political campaigners. Basic English, for example, with its vocabulary of only 850 words with which virtually anything can be expressed, has many advocates. But the Soviet Union and many nations of Asia and South America object to it. Why English? They ask. Why not Basic Russian, Basic Spanish, even Basic Latin?
In addition to the “basics” of languages now in use, there is another type—the so-called “constructed languages,” of which some six hundred have made their appearance since the end of the nineteenth century, most of them almost immediate failures. The two best-known survivors among them are, of course, Esperanto and Interlingua.
Esperanto was published in 1887 by a Russian-Polish physician names Zamenhof, who had worked on it for ten years. He gave it to the world not under his own name but under the pseudonym Doktoro Esperanto, meaning “Doctor Hopeful.” Esperanto is based on regularity and ease of grammar, with a vocabulary from Roman-Germanic roots. By the end of the century Esperanto had taken hold in western Europe.
Interlingua made its appearance much later—in 1951. A group of linguists from many nations took nearly thirty years to perfect it. Essentially, Interlingua is Latin stripped of its difficulties. Its introducer, Dr. Alexander Gode, refers to it as “a kind of twentieth century kitchen Latin.” Indeed, Interlingua can be read by most college-trained people almost at sight.
I do not by any means consider myself an authority on the relative merits of the various proposed common languages, but Dr. Mario Pei, of Columbia University in New York City, has written a fine book on the subject called One Language for the World. In this book Dr. Pei says he believes that it makes little difference which language or what kind of language becomes the international language, as long as agreement can be reached among the people of the world on any one.
For my own part, it seems to me that the main requirement of an international language is that it be easily learned. Thus it should have the simplest possible spelling and grammar and pronunciation, and the smallest possible vocabulary. An adult should be able to master such a language within three months if he gives several hours a day to the study of it.
What can be done concretely to achieve the goal of a working common language? I believe that the UNESCO arm of the United Nations should call a meeting of leading linguists from each of its member nations. (This would include most of the major populated areas of the world.) As Dr. Pei recommends, the purpose of the conference would be to select an already existing language agreeable to a preponderance of the nations represented. Such an agreement won’t come without determined effort: it may take more than one conference to reach agreement; it may take many more. The important thing is that some positive action be taken.
Such a conference should be called without further delay; we are sorely in need of this first step. Only with an international language in use, with the proceedings of the UN published in it, with children in schools all over the world learning it as their second language, can we close the gap between the “one world” so recently established in terms of travel time and the one world we hope for in terms of human understanding and co-operations.
Because I believe strongly that without the closing of this gap international accord is only a vain hope, I’ve taken it upon myself to try to implement this proposal. Since it is most unlikely that either UNESCO or the nations involved have funds to finance the linguists’ conference, I think that one of the great philanthropic foundations, such as the Ford, Carnegie, or Rockefeller Foundation, should undertake to make it possible.
I have already approached one of these foundations for such a grant–and been turned down. I shall approach the others in turn, and if I am turned down by all, I shall look for other ways to make this conference possible.
It is the responsibility of all Americans to do whatever they can in their own communities to make this goal of one language for one world a reality for our children.
4. What is “Babel”? And what does “Babel” refer to respectively in the following few phrases: “the tower of Babel” (para.1), “our contemporary Babel” (para.1), “Babel barrier”(para.3), “diplomatic Babel” (para.3) “there is Babel” (para.6)?
5. According to the author, what are the things that really matter for the success of an international language? Do you agree?
III. Writing (30’)
Write an article (not a poem, short story or play) of about 400 words in response to the following news report.. Be sure to give your article a title.
Company in Hubei says no to rich kids
BEIJING, Nov. 3 (Xinhuanet) –A cultural media company in central China’s Hubei Province has recently triggered a heated discussion about the company’s recruitment requirements among college graduates who are looking for a job, according to reports Tuesday.
The company, at a campus recruitment event of Wuhan University of Science and Technology, clearly stated that graduates who are leaders of student unions are preferred, while those that are in the rich second generation (R2G) will be excluded from applying for any job within the company.
“Their superior family background makes some R2G arrogant. Although they do not make any efforts, they have a bright future inherited from their parents. And maybe because of this, some companies are prejudiced against them,” said Xiao Ye, a student in the college.
“I do not think that ‘R2G’ should be a label directly associated with those who are not capable enough to be hired or for those who have poor qualities,” said another student. “We cannot choose what kind of family we are born into, so it is not fair to judge people in accordance with the background of their family.”
“This stipulation was listed after adamant demands from our employees,” said a manager of the company. “Actual working experience has told us that many R2G cannot bear hard work and are hard to cooperate with.”
“Besides, a lot of recent negative news concerning this group of people also persuaded us to list this stipulation,” added the manager.
“It is not scientific to refuse this group of people job opportunities. They should not use a small number of people to define the entire group,” said Liu Chongshun, an analyst at the Hubei Scientific Socialism Research Institute.
“Everyone should have an equal opportunity to find a job they want. What this company did is a typical example of social exclusion,” added Liu.
6、“国学”一词产生于20世纪20年代，适逢 “西学东渐”改良之风正炽。张之洞、 魏源等人为了与西学相对，提出“中学”这一概念，并主张 “中学为体，西学为用”。1949年后，随着批判胡适买办哲学和资产阶级唯心史观，以及历次的文艺批判运动，“国学”作为一个名词已基本消失。直到20世纪80年代后，随着复兴中华文化之声的高涨，尤其是孔子学院在海外的遍布和发展，“国学”又开始在海内外再度风起。
第二部分 应用文写作 （40’）
中国南方科技股份有限公司拟出售给美国时代通讯公司1000台程控交换机。 双方约定，由时代通讯公司总裁Bob Weiner先生与南方科技股份有限公司董事长孔庆东先生，于2012年2月15日在深圳签定正式合同。