I. 词语翻译 （30%）
1. CFO:首席财务官(Chief Financial Officer)
2. NATO:北大西洋公约组织(North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
4. G-7 nations:七国集团（美国、日本、德国、英国、法国、意大利和加拿大）
5. Boy Scouts of America： 美国童子军
6. The Ivy League：常春藤联盟；常春藤联合会（指美国东部八所学术和社会地位高的大学）
8. MIR Space Station：（俄罗斯）和平号空间站
9. Nasdaq：纳斯达克；美国全国证券交易商协会自动报价系统（（National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation）
10. New Deal：罗斯福新政
12. tertiary industry：第三产业
1. 拆迁:housing demolition and relocation
2. 调控房价:housing prices control
3. 教育公平:equal Access to Education;Educational Equity
4. 安居工程:Comfortable Housing Project
5. 农村留守人口:rural left-behind population
6. 行政问责制: administrative accountability (system)
7. 赈灾:disaster relief;relieve the people in stricken areas
8. 养老保险:endowment insurance;pension insurance
9. 最低生活保障:subsistence allowances ; basic cost of living allowances
10. 传销:pyramid selling ; pyramid schemes ; pyramid sale
11. 国有资产流失:loss of state assets ; erosion of state assets
12. 参政议政:participate in the administration and discussion of state affairs
13. 从我国国情出发:based on China’s national conditions;on the basis of China’s actual conditions
14. 能上能下:competent to work both at the top and at the grass roots; be adaptive to promotion and demotion
15. 解决民生问题:to improve people’s well-being
The past came back to him in pictures: his boyhood’s past first of all. He saw again theoldhome, every inch ofwhich was familiar tohim ashis own name; hereconstructed in his thought all the old well-known furniture, and replaced it precisely as it had stood long ago. He passed again a childish finger over the rough surface of the faded Utrecht velvet1 chairs, and smelled again the strong fragrance of the white lilac tree, blowing in through the open parlour-window. He savoured anew the pleasant mental atmosphere produced by the dainty neatness of cultured women, the companionship of a few good pictures, of a few good books. Yet this home had been broken up years ago, the dear familiar things had been scattered far and wide, never to find themselves under the same roof again; and from those near relatives who still remained to him he lived now hopelesslyestranged.
Then came the past of his first love-dream, when he worshipped at the feet of Nora Beresford, and,with thewhole-heartedness of thetrue fanatic, clothed his idolwithevery imaginable attribute of virtue and tenderness. To this day there remained a secret shrine in his heart wherein the Lady of his young ideal was still enthroned, although it was long since he had come to perceive she had nothing whatever in common with the Nora of reality. For the real Nora he had no longer any sentiment, she had passed altogether out of his life and thoughts; and yet, so permanent is all influence, whether good or evil, that the effect she wrought upon his character remained. He recognized tonight that her treatment of him in the past did not count for nothing among the various factors which had determined his fate. —- Ella D’Arcy (本文选自 Victorian Short Stories of Troubled Marriages 翻译硕士真题网注）
王冕自此只在秦家放牛，每到黄昏，回家跟着母亲歇宿。或遇秦家煮些腌鱼、 腊肉给他吃，他便拿块荷叶包了来家，递与母亲。每日点心钱，他也不买了吃，聚 到一两个月，便偷个空，走到村学堂里，见那闯学堂的书客，就买几本旧书，日逐 把牛拴了，坐在柳荫树下看。 弹指又过了三四年。王冕看书，心下也着实明白了。那日，正是黄梅时候，天 气烦躁，王冕放牛倦了，在绿草地上坐着。须臾，浓云弥补，一阵大雨过了。那黑 云边上镶着白云，渐渐散去，透出一派日光来，照耀得满湖通红。湖边山上，青一 块，紫一块，绿一块。树枝上都像水洗过一番的，尤其绿得可爱。湖里有十来枝荷 花，苞子上清水滴滴，荷叶上水珠滚来滚去。王冕看了一回，心里想倒；“古人说 ‘人在画图中’，其实不错。可惜我这里没有画工，把这荷花画他几枝，也觉有趣。” 又心里想到：“天下那有学不会的事，我何不自画他几枝？” （本文选自《儒林外史》56回 放牛郎王冕画荷花 翻译硕士真题网注）
Section 1 Vocabulary and Grammar (30 points)
This section consists of 4 parts. Read the directions for each part before answering the questions. The time for this section is 60 minutes.
Part 1 Vocabulary Selection (8 points)
In this part, there are 8 incomplete sentences. Below each sentence, there are 4 choices respectively marked A, B, C and D. Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence. There is only ONE right answer. Blacken the corresponding letter as required on your Answer Sheet.
1. Boys are more_________than girls.
A. impetus B. impetuous C. impatient D. impetrate
2. I had been puzzled over the problem for over an hour without any result when all at once the solution______across my mind.
A. flushed B. flattered C. flared D. flashed
3. If you cheat you will make yourself__________.
A. credulous B. credible C. incredible D. incredulous
4. Man is a__________being.
A. conscious B. consciousness C. conscience D. conscientious
5. The young boy is a pupil of great______________.
A. accentuation B. altitude C. attitude D. aptitude
6. In the informal meeting the exporter learned that the importer was interested______purchase rather than pre-packed sets of 12.
A. in bulk B. in essence C. at random D. at ease
7. The testimony of the witness meant to __________ the defense of the man accused of theft actually strengthened the case of his accusers.
A. appease B. deprecate C. enlighten D. bolster
8. Due to the fact that universities cannot enroll all the candidates, ___________to university is competitive.
A. admission B. affidavit C. admiration D. allegiance
Part 2 Vocabulary Replacement (8 points)
This part consists of 8 sentences; in each sentence one word or phrase is underlined. Below each sentence, there are 4 choices respectively marked A, B, C and D. Choose the word or phrase that can replace the underlined part without causing any grammatical error or changing the basic meaning of the sentence. There is only ONE right answer. Blacken the corresponding letter as required on your ANSWER SHEET.
9. There must have been someone who has instigated a rebellion because the people are so well organized.
A. incited B. tampered C. intruded D. meddled
10. Now I don’t want to intrude because John’s house is full of visitors.
A. intercept B. interlope C. infer D. incur
11. However, beyond that dolorous picture; there is a revolution at work in world agriculture.
A. illusive B. blurry C. reflective D. grievous
12. As she greeted me at the door, my prospective roommate seemed to be the happy and carefree friend I had dreamed before I came to the university.
A. eventual B. would-be C. probable D. prosperous
13. For the last few decades, the Japanese concept of a good life was defined by narrow parameters: children would study hard, attend the best universities possible, and join a big company as a “salesman” or as an “office lady”.
A. capacitors B. parachutes C. parallels D. considerations
14. In the world of sport, the four-minute mile—the “dream mile”—until recently was the most intriguing goal remaining to the individual athlete.
A. daring B. demanding C. thought-provoking D. fascinating
15. It takes the most cool-headed and good-tempered of drivers to resist the temptation to make reprisals when subjected to uncivilized behavior.
A. challenged B. laugh C. revenge D. appreciate
16. The 20th century poem suggests to something we have been able to find nothing about.
A .alludes B. avoids C. alleges D. alerts
Part 3 Error Correction (8 points)
This part consists of 8 sentences; in each sentence there is an underlined part that indicates a grammatical error. Below each sentence, there are 4 choices respectively marked by letters A, B, C and D. Choose the word or phrase that can replace the underlined part so that the error is corrected. There is only ONE right answer. Blacken the corresponding letter as required on your ANSWER SHEET.
17. Researchers all over the world have been seeking for determining how early infancy conceptual thinking is possible.
A. have been seeking about determining
B. have been seeking to determine about
C. have been seeking to determine
D. have thought to determine
18. All mammals have air, but not always evident.
A. but it is not B. but it is C. but they are not D. but they are
19. The winner of the Nobel Prize in physics dedicated the honour to his high school physics teacher; he had been an inspiration during his early years.
A. who B. whom C. which D. that
20. The hands on this clock are lubricate so that it can be seen in the dark.
A. luminous B. luminary C. lugubrious D. lubricable
21. Before writing a book, the first thing is considering what to say.
A. you must first ponder what to say and what not to be said carefully
B. it’s extremely necessary that you know what to say
C. the first thing is to consider what to say
D. you must first ponder what to say and what not to say
22. With the change of red lights, there are long queues of vehicles that wait while a few people who walk across the zebra.
A. wait…walk B. waiting…walking C. waiting…walk D. wait…walking
23. With good reasons he is called a fool.
A. With good reasons is he called a fool. B. He is called fool with a good reason.
C. With good reasons he is called fool. D. He is called fool with good reasons.
24. The gibbon ranges over an area wider than do the other apes.
A. a wider area than other apes do B. an area wider than are other apes do
C. wider than other apes do the area D. than wider other apes do an area
Part 4 Improving Sentences (6 points)
The following sentences test correctness and effectiveness of expression. Part of each sentence or the entire sentence is underlined; beneath each sentence are five ways of phrasing the underlined materials. Select one of the choices most appropriate to the expression of meaning of the original sentence. Your selection should result in the most effective sentence–clear and precise, without awkwardness or ambiguity. There is only ONE right answer. Blacken the corresponding letter as required on your ANSWER SHEET.
25. Zookeepers have expanded one’s definition of care to include concern for the animal’s mental state as well as for its physical well-being.
A. have expanded one’s definition of care to include
B. have expanded one’s definition of care, including
C. expanded one’s definition of care, they include
D. expanding the definition of care to include
E. have expanded their definition of care to include
26. Intimacy, love, and marriage are three different, if interrelated, subjects.
A. different, if interrelated, subjects
B. interrelated subjects, being, however, different
C. different subjects, whereas they are interrelated
D. different subjects when interrelated
E. subjects that are different although being interrelated
27. The famous battle depicted in the film Braveheart took place in northern England, and many people assume that it was the Scottish Highlands.
A. and many people assume that it was
B. many people assuming
C. but not many people assume it to be
D. not what many people assume
E. not, as many as people assume, in
28. The survival of many species of marine life may depend on both the enforcement of waste-disposal regulations and the education of the public about the fragility of ocean resources.
A. and the education of the public
B. educating the public
C. and the public being educated
D. along with the education of the public
E. in combination with the public education
29. Although she wrote 2,000 years ago, the Roman poet Sulpicia is still being read: her poems are available in English translation in a number of anthologies.
A. read: her poems are
B: read: her poems are
C. read: her poems being
D. read: her poems are being
E. read, yet her poems are
30. A severe northeastern storm struck Boston on New Year’s Day, 1990, slowing down the loading of ships in the harbor, the city was caught off guard because of the Weather Bureau Being closed for the holidays.
A. harbor, the city was caught off guard because of the Weather Bureau Being closed for the holidays.
B. harbor, because the Weather Bureau was closed for the holidays, the city was caught off guard
C. harbor; catching the city off guard because the Weather Bureau was closed for the holidays
D. harbor; the city was caught off guard because the Weather Bureau was closed for the holidays
E. harbor and catching the city off guard, which was caused by the Weather Bureau being closed for the holidays.
Section II Reading Comprehension (40 points)
Directions: This section consists of 2 parts. In Part 1, there are three passages followed by a total of 15 multiple-choice questions. In Part 2, there are one passage followed by a total of 5 short-answer questions. Read the passages and then mark or write down your answers on your Answer Sheet.
Part 1 Multiple-Choice Questions (30 points)
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:
Health-care services will account for almost one-fifth of all job growth during the 1996-2005 period. Home health-care aids will assist the elderly, disabled, and seriously ill in the patient’s home instead of a health facility. A large number of openings for this field are expected due to very rapid growth and high turnover. In fact, home health-care aids are expected to more than double in number by the end of 2005.
Part of the reason for this increase is the growing population of elderly people. The number of people in their 70s and older is projected to rise substantially. This age group is characterized by mounting health problems that require assistance. There will also be an increasing reliance on home care for patients of all ages. This trend reflects several developments; efforts to contain costs by moving patients out of hospitals and nursing facilities as quickly as possible; the realization that treatment can be more effective in familiar surroundings; and the development of portable medical equipment for in-home treatment.
Turnover in this field is high, which is a reflection of the relatively low skill requirements, low pay, and high emotional demands of the work. Therefore, people who are interested in this work and properly suited for it should have excellent job opportunities, particularly those with previous experience.
Physical therapy, too, is predicted to increase rapidly through 2005. A growing population of elderly people, who are vulnerable to chronic and debilitating conditions, means that more therapeutic services will be needed. More young people will also need physical therapy as medical advances save the lives of a larger proportion of newborns with severe birth defects. Growth will also result from advances in medical technology that permit the treatment of more disabling conditions. In the past, for example, the development of hip and knee replacements for those with arthritis gave rise to employment for physical therapists to improve flexibility and strengthen weak muscles.
The growing interest in health promotion should also increase the demand for physical therapy services. More employers are now evaluating work sites, developing exercise programs, and teaching safe work habits to employees in the hope of reducing injuries.
A shortage of physical therapists that once existed has all but disappeared. The number of physical-therapy education programs has increased, and more graduates have moved into the labor force. Most graduates receive multiple job offers, and job prospects are expected to continue to be excellent. Physical therapists who are willing to work in rural areas will experience even better opportunities. (418 words)
31. The increase in home health care aids is partly due to ________.
A. the rising costs of staying in hospital
B. the growing population of elderly people
C. the declining services in some health facilities
D. the mounting health problems among newborns
32. It can be inferred from the passage that ________.
A. in-home health care need more complicated medical equipment
B. patients receiving treatment at home prefer doctors they are familiar with
C. more and more people realize that in-home treatment may be more effective
D. patients should move out of hospitals as quickly as possible in order to cut costs
33. The high turnover in the field of home health care reflects ________.
A. the high pay of the work
B. bad job opportunities in the field
C. high emotional demand of the work
D. the relatively high skill requirement
34. Growth in therapeutic services is NOT caused by ________.
A. advances in medical technology
B. growing interest in health promotion
C. growing population of elderly people
D. declining proportion of newborns with severe birth defects
35. Graduates from physical-therapy education programs ________.
A. have good job opportunities
B. have difficulties in finding jobs
C. aren’t willing to work in rural areas
D. aren’t willing to stay in this profession
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage:
Mobility of individual members and family groups tends to split up family relationships. Occasionally the movement of a family away from a situation which has been the source of friction results in greater family organization, but on the whole mobility is disorganizing.
Individuals and families are involved in three types of mobility: movement in space, movement up or down in social status, and the movement of ideas. These are terms respectively spatial, vertical, and ideational mobility.
A great increase in spatial mobility has gone along with improvements in rail and water transportation, the invention and use of the automobile, and the availability of airplane passenger service. Spatial mobility results in a decline in the importance of the traditional home with its emphasis on family continuity and stability. It also means that when individual family members or the family as a whole move away from a community, the person of the family is removed from the pressures of relatives, friends, and community institutions for conventionality and stability. Even more important is the fact that spatial mobility permits some members of a family to come in contact with and possibly adopt attitudes, values, and ways of thinking different from those held by other family members. The presence of different attitudes, values, and ways of thinking within a family may, and often does, result in conflict and family disorganization. Potential disorganization is present in those families in which the husband, wife, and children are spatially separated over a long period, or a are living together but see each other only briefly because of different work schedules.
One index of the increase in vertical mobility is the great increase in the proportion of sons, and to some extent daughters, who engage in occupations other than those of the parents. Another index of vertical mobility is the degree of intermarriage between social classes. This occurs almost exclusively between classes which are adjacent to each other. Engaging in a different occupation, or intermarriage, like spatial mobility, allows one to come in contact with ways of behavior different from those of the parental home, and tends to separate parents from their children.
The increase in ideational mobility is measured by the increase in publications, such as newspapers, periodicals, and books, the increase in the percentage of the population owning radios, and the increase in television sets. All these tend to introduce new ideas in the home. When individual family members are exposed to and adopt the new ideas, the tendency is for conflict to arise and for those in conflict to become psychologically separated from each other. (430 words)
36. What the passage tells us can be summarized by the statement ________.
A. potential disorganization is present in the American family
B. family disorganization is more or less the result of mobility
C. the movement of a family is one of the factors in raising its social status
D. social development results in a decline in the importance of traditional families
37. According to the passage, those who live in a traditional family ________.
A. are less likely to quarrel with others because of conventionality and stability
B. have to depend on their relatives and friends if they do not move away from it
C. will have more freedom of action and thought if they move away from it
D. can get more help from their family members if they are in trouble
38. Potential disorganization exists in those families in which ________.
A. both parents have to work full time
B. the husband, wife, and children work too hard
C. the family members are subject to social pressures
D. the husband, wife, and children seldom get together
39. Intermarriage and different occupations play an important role in family disorganization because ________.
A. they enable the children to travel around without their parents
B. they allow one to find a good job and improve one’s social status
C. they permit one to come into contact with different ways of behavior and thinking
D. they enable the children to better understand the ways of behavior of their parents
40. This passage suggests that a well-organized family is a family whose members ________.
A. often help each other with true love and affection
B. are not psychologically withdrawn from one another
C. never quarrel with each other even when they disagree
D. are exposed to the same new ideas introduced by books, radios, and TV sets
Questions 41 to 45 are based on the following passage:
The promise of finding long-term technological solutions to the problem of world food shortage seems difficult to fulfill. Many innovations that were once heavily supported and publicized, such as fish-protein concentrate and protein from algae grown on petroleum substrates, have since fallen by the wayside. The proposals themselves were technically feasible, but they proved to be economically unviable and to yield food products culturally unacceptable to their consumers. Recent innovations such as opaque-2 maize, Antarctic krill, and the wheat-rye hybrid triticale seem more promising, but it is too early to predict their ultimate fate.
One characteristic common to unsuccessful food innovations has been that, even with extensive government support, they often have not been technologically adapted or culturally acceptable to the people for whom they had been developed. A successful new technology, therefore, must fit the entire social-cultural system in which it is to find a place. Security of crop yield, practically of storage, palatability, and costs are much more significant than had previously been realized by the advocates of new technologies. For example, the better protein quality in tortillas made from opaque-2 maize will be of only limited benefit to a family on the margin of subsistence if the new maize is not culturally acceptable or is more vulnerable to insects.
The adoption of new food technologies depends on more than these technical and cultural considerations; economic factors and government policies also strongly influence the ultimate success of any innovation. Economists in the Anglo-American tradition have taken the lead in investigating the economics of technological innovation. Although they exaggerate in claiming that profitability is the key factor guiding technical change – they completely disregard the substantial effects of culture – they are correct in stressing the importance of profits. Most technological innovations in agriculture can be fully used only by large landowners and are only adopted if these profit-oriented business people believe that the innovation will increase their incomes. Thus, innovations that carry high rewards for big agribusiness groups will be adopted even if they harm segments of the population and reduce the availability of food in a country. Further, should a new technology promise to alter substantially the profits and losses associated with any production system, those with economic power will strive to maintain and improve their own position. Since large segments of the populations of many developing countries are close to the subsistence margin and essentially powerless, they tend to be the losers in this system unless they are aided by a government policy that takes into account the needs of all sectors of the economy. Therefore, although technical advances in food production and processing will perhaps be needed to ensure food availability, meeting food needs will depend much more on equalizing economic power among the various segments of the populations within the developing countries themselves. (467 words)
41. We learn from the first paragraph that ________.
A. new innovations on some foods are bound to be unacceptable to different cultures
B. technological innovations have, to a large extent, solved the problem of world food shortages
C. there is a long way to go before the problem of world food shortages can be solved technologically
D. the yield of food products has increased dramatically because of the successful technological innovations
42. An important reason why food innovations are not so successful is that ________.
A. they have not been adapted to different cultures
B. there has been a lack of adequate government support
C. they have not been publicized and are little known by people
D. a complete socio-cultural system has not been set up for their spread
43. Which of the following factors in food might not be very significant for a family on the margin of subsistence?
B. Security of crop yield.
C. Better protein quality.
D. Practicality of storage.
44. In what way do economic factors have impact on the final success of any innovation?
A. Profitability is the key factor stimulating technical change.
B. Agribusiness people will not adopt innovations if they cannot get high incomes.
C. Large landowners are reluctant to adopt innovations due to their cultural unacceptability.
D. Innovators attach importance to the maximum profit they can get from such a technical change.
45. The writer points out that for the ultimate success of any innovation, the government in developing countries should ________.
A. encourage large landowners to adopt technical innovations
B. draw innovators’ attention to the substantial effects of culture
C. aid large segments of the population to improve their powerless position
D. make some policies to equalize economic power among various segments of populations
Part 2 Short-Answer Questions (10 points)
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage:
The distinctive architectural feature of the typical Broadway theater is the juxtaposition of two almost independent buildings facing and opening into one another through a proscenium arch. The audience sits in the auditorium structure and watches the actors perform in the stage house. This separation is more than an aesthetic impression, because the building codes require that a physical barrier protect the audience from a fire starting on the stage. A fireproof wall, rather than a mere partition separates the structures and this separation is completed by a fireproof curtain that is rigged to fall automatically and close the proscenium opening in case of fire. Automatic fire doors similarly close all other openings between the two structures. The codes keep such openings to a minimum.
This separation came about in the nineteenth century in the United States as a result of theater fires. It has produced a fundamental structural change from previous centuries without making much corresponding change in the appearance of the building. Most theaters of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries were remodeled from banquet halls, tennis courts, and other rectangular halls, and remained essentially a single structure with a thin partition for the proscenium wall.
So far as the audience is concerned a theater is primarily a place for entertainment. Its great attraction is the opportunity it affords for vicarious experience. The audience approaches the theater with the expectation of some form of glamour, excitement, or emotional vividness. The architect and the decorator try to sustain and increase this excitement and anticipation as the spectator moves through the theater. One of the familiar architectural devices for this effect is spaciousness of lobby, foyer and auditorium. Color and ornamentation are other devices for the same purpose, as seen in almost all theaters built before the twentieth century.
46. In what sense is a typical Broadway theater built distinctively?
47. According to the passage, why is separation needed in the theater?
48. Why was it necessary to change the fundamental structure of theaters in the nineteenth century?
49. How were theaters usually built prior to the nineteenth century?
50. What’s the purpose of the architectural device mentioned in the last paragraph?
Section 3 Writing (30 points)
Directions: In this part you are supposed to write an essay of about 400 words within 60 minutes on the topic as follows.
Is preparing for the future more important than enjoying the present?
Plan and write an essay in which you develop your point of view on this issue. Support your position with reasoning and examples taken from your reading, studies, experience, or observations.
Is preparing for the future more important than enjoying the present?