I. 词语翻译 （30%）
1. cognition: 认识；认知能力
2. after-sales: 售后；售后服务
3. first aid : 急救
5. diplomatic policy:外交政策
6. stock-broker: 证券经纪人，股票经纪人
7. head-clerk: 总管；首席办事员
8.APEC: 亚太经贸合作组织（Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation）
9. freight rates: 运费率；运输费
10. the Renaissance：文艺复兴
11. hospitality spending：公务接待费；公款接待费
12. real estate market：房地产市场；房产市场
13. per capita income：人均收入；国民平均收入
14. product diversification：产品多样化；产品多元化
15. UNESCO：联合国教科文组织(United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization)
1.全面战略伙伴关系：the comprehensive strategic partnership
3.子公司：subsidiary; subsidiary corporation [company]
5.净利润：net return；net profit; net income
6.破产：go bankrupt; go broke; become insolvent; become impoverished
7.消防队：fire brigade; fire company
8.博览会：fair; expo; exposition
10.药房：pharmacy ; drugstore
11.免税的：duty-free; tax-free; tax-exempt
13.单程票:one-way ticket; single ticket
14.国内汇兑:domestic exchange; domestic remittance
15.债券:bond ; debenture
A young man strolled along a country road one August evening after a long
delicious day—a day of that blessed idleness the man of leisure never knows: one
must be a bank clerk forty-nine weeks out of the fifty-two before one can really
appreciate the exquisite enjoyment of doing nothing for twelve hours at a stretch.
Willoughby had spent the morning lounging about a sunny rickyard; then, when the
heat grew unbearable, he had retreated to an orchard, where, lying on his back in the
long cool grass, he had traced the pattern of the apple-leaves diapered above him
upon the summer sky; now that the heat of the day was over he had come to roam
whither sweet fancy led him, to lean over gates, view the prospect, and meditate
upon the pleasures of a well-spent day. Five such days had already passed over his
head, fifteen more remained to him. Then farewell to freedom and clean country air!
Back again to London and another year’s toil.
He came to a gate on the right of the road. Behind it a footpath meandered up
over a grassy slope. The sheep nibbling on its summit cast long shadows down the
hill almost to his feet. Road and fieldpath were equally new to him, but the latter
offered greener attractions; he vaulted lightly over the gate and had so little idea he
was taking thus the first step towards ruin. The sheep stopped feeding and raised
their heads to stare at him from pale-lashed eyes; first one and then another broke
into a startled run, until there was a sudden woolly stampede of the entire flock.
When Willoughby gained the ridge from which they had just scattered, he came in
sight of a woman sitting on a stile at the further end of the field. As he advanced
towards her he saw that she was young, and that she was not what is called ‘a
lady’—of which he was glad: an earlier episode in his career having indissolubly
associated in his mind ideas of feminine refinement with those of feminine
treachery. （选自《无可挽回(Irremediable)》埃拉•达西 著；朱湘军 译 翻译硕士真题网注）
学生中，除有一名来自德国外，其余 5 位均是亚裔学生。他干脆在实验室的门
上贴一醒目招牌：”本室助研必须每周工作 7 天，早 10 时至晚 12 时，工作时间
必须全力以赴。”（选自专八翻译真题 汉译英 mtizt.com注）
Like students from other Asian countries and regions most Chinese students who come to study in the United States are very diligent. On most weekends, they would spend one day, or even two days, working in their laboratories. Therefore, compared with their American counterparts, they are more academically fruitful. My supervisor/ advisor is of Asian origin, who is fond of both alcohol and cigarette, and he has a sharp temper. Nevertheless, he highly appreciates the industry and solid academic foundations of Asian students and is particularly good at the psychology of Asian students. Therefore, of all the students he accepted for his laboratory, except for one German, all the other five were from Asia. He even put a striking notice on the door of his lab, which read, “ All the research assistants of this laboratory are required to work seven days a week, from 10 AM to 12 PM. Nothing but work during the working hours.”
Like students from other Asian countries and regions, most Chinese students work very hard. Even on weekends, they would spend one day, or even two days in the laboratory. Therefore, they had more publications than their American counterparts. My supervisor himself is Asian in origin, who loves to drink, smoke, and lose temper. Nevertheless, he appreciates Asian students for their hard working and solid foundation. He appreciates them very much and knows them very well. Consequently, of all six assistants he hired for his laboratory work, five were from Asia, only one was from Germany.
I. Vocabulary & Grammar (30%)
Directions: There are 30 sentences in this section. Beneath each sentence there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence. Mark your answers on the Answer Sheet.
1. I have planned to have the meeting today, but it has been __________ until next Monday.
C. called off
2. A __________ is a person who chooses to die rather than abandon his or her religious belief.
3. __________ is the way in which written material is arranged and prepared for printing.
4. __________ is a place where people who are in danger from other people can go to be safe.
5. She decided to __________ the world and entered a convent.
6. You describe a situation as a __________ when it involves two or more facts or qualities which seem to contradict each other.
7. Don’t make __________ comments out of ignorance. Don’t make improper comments before you know the whole story.
8. Planets here show how and to what we are attached, and the degree of our __________.
9. The plane found the spot and hovered close enough to __________ that it was a car.
10. Picking flowers in the park is absolutely __________.
11. Obviously, the Chairman’s remarks at the conference were __________ and not planned.
12. The professor’s dedication to __________ earned him the respect of both his colleagues and students.
C. being taught
B. be taught
13. Do help yourself to some fruit, __________ you?
14. She didn’t __________ the door key to her landlord until she got back her deposit.
A. hand in
C. hand out
B. hand down
D. hand over
15. You __________ me anything about it. I think it was none of my business.
A. needn’t have told
C. needn’t tell
B. mustn’t have told
D. mustn’t tell
16. Jim was really rude to everyone in my party last night. It really __________ me __________.
A. put … over
C. put … off
B. put … down
D. put … up
17. Please feel free to visit me whenever __________.
A. you are convenient
C. you will be convenient
B. it is convenient to you
D. it will be convenient to you
18. I have been really __________ with the current situation in that country because my cousin was traveling there.
19. Language belongs to each member of the society, to the housewife __________ to the president.
A. as far as
C. as long as
B. as much as
D. the same as
20. Fat cannot change into muscle__________ muscle changes into fact.
A. any more than
C. no less than
B. no more than
D. much more than
21. While driving along the treacherous road, __________.
A. my right rear tire blown out
C. my right rear tire blows out
B. I had my right rear tire blow out
D. I had a blowout on my right rear tire
22. Our friends said that they wouldn’t mind __________.
A. have a little light music
C. they have a little light music
B. to have a little light music
D. having a little light music
23. __________ for his help, I’d never have been able to achieve such a success.
A. If it were not
C. If I had not been
B. Had it not been
D. Had it not
24. Without facts, one cannot form a worthwhile opinion, for he needs to have factual knowledge __________ his thinking.
A. to base on which
C. upon which to base
B. which to be based on
D. which to base upon
25. Science and common sense offer ways to minimize the risk of __________ climate change.
26. You may merely be __________ your own misery and unhappiness by comparing yourself to others.
27. The storm left many parts of the island underwater and destroyed thousands of artifacts __________ from archaeological digs.
28. Chinese special envoy Zhang Yesui met Malaysia’s Najib on Wednesday and called for “__________ efforts” to find the plane.
29. According to state employment data, construction is by far the fastest growing industry in the state, __________ some job losses in the sector last month.
30. Most tiny houses are __________ for middle-class and wealthy families who made a conscious decision to “build better, not bigger”.
II. Reading Comprehension (40%)
Directions: This part consists of two sections. In Section A, there are three passages followed by a total of 15 multiple-choice questions. In Section B, there is one passage followed by a total of 5 short-answer questions. Read the passages and then mark or write down your answers on the Answer Sheet.
Section A Multiple-Choice Questions (30%)
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:
The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed “intuition” to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking.
Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness.
Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an “Aha!” experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns.
One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert. Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue.
They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution. (453 words)
31. According to the passage, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to __________.
A. speed up the creation of a solution to a problem
B. identify a problem
C. bring together disparate facts
D. stipulate clear goals
32. Which of the following does the passage suggest about the “writers on management” mentioned in paragraph 2?
A. They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions.
B. They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample of actual managers.
C. They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than on what managers do.
D. They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis.
33. Which of the following best exemplifies “an ‘Aha!’ experience” (para. 3) as it is presented in the passage?
A. A manager risks taking an action whose outcome is unpredictable to discover whether the action changes the problem at hand.
B. A manager performs well-learned and familiar behavior patterns in creative and uncharacteristic ways to solve a problem.
C. A manager suddenly connects seemingly unrelated facts and experiences to create a pattern relevant to the problem at hand.
D. A manager rapidly identifies the methodology used to compile data yielded by systematic analysis.
34. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT __________.
A. evaluation of a problem
B. creation of possible solutions to a problem
C. establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
D. action undertaken in order to discover more information about a problem
35. According to the passage, which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?
A. Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
B. Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
C. Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
D. Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage:
After evidence was obtained in the 1920s that the universe is expanding, it became reasonable to ask: Will the universe continue to expand indefinitely, or is there enough mass in it for the mutual attraction of its constituents to bring this expansion to a halt? It can be calculated that the critical density of matter needed to brake the expansion and “close” the universe is equivalent to three hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. But the density of the observable universe—luminous matter in the form of galaxies—comes to only a fraction of this. If the expansion of the universe is to stop, there must be enough invisible matter in the universe to exceed the luminous matter in density by a factor of roughly 70.
Our contribution to the search for this “missing matter” has been to study the rotational velocity of galaxies at various distances from their center of rotation. It has been known for some time that outside the bright nucleus of typical spiral galaxy luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the center. If luminosity were a true indicator of mass, most of the mass would be concentrated toward the center. Outside the nucleus the rotational velocity would decrease geometrically with distance from the center, in conformity with Kepler’s law.
Instead we have found that the rotational velocity in spiral galaxies either remains constant with increasing distance from the center or increases slightly. This unexpected result indicates that the falloff in luminous mass with distance from the center is balanced by an increase in nonluminous mass.
Our findings suggest that as much as 90 percent of the mass of the universe is not radiating at any wave length with enough intensity to be detected on the Earth. Such dark matter could be in the form of extremely dim stars of low mass, of large planets like Jupiter, or of black holes, either small or massive. While it has not yet been determined whether this mass is sufficient to close the universe, some physicists consider it significant that estimates are converging on the critical value. (351 words)
36. The passage is primarily concerned with __________.
A. defending a controversial approach
B. criticizing an accepted view
C. summarizing research findings
D. contrasting competing theories
37. The authors’ study indicates that, in comparison with the outermost regions of a typical spiral galaxy, the region just outside the nucleus can be characterized as having __________.
A. higher rotational velocity and higher luminosity
B. lower rotational velocity and higher luminosity
C. lower rotational velocity and lower luminosity
D. similar rotational velocity and higher luminosity
38. The authors’ suggestion that “as much as 90 percent of the mass of the universe is not radiating at any wave length with enough intensity to be detected on the Earth” (para.4) would be most weakened if __________ were discovered to be true.
A. Spiral galaxies are less common than types of galaxies that contain little nonluminous matter.
B. Luminous and nonluminous matter are composed of the same basic elements.
C. The bright nucleus of a typical spiral galaxy also contains some nonluminous matter.
D. The density of the observable universe is greater than most previous estimates have suggested.
39. It can be inferred from the passage that if the density of the universe were equivalent to significantly less than three hydrogen atoms per cubic meter, __________ would be true as a consequence.
A. Luminosity would be a true indicator of mass.
B. Different regions in spiral galaxies would rotate at the same velocity.
C. The universe would continue to expand indefinitely.
D. The density of the invisible matter in the universe would have to be more than 70 times the density of the luminous matter.
40. The authors propose all of the following as possibly contributing to the “missing matter” in spiral galaxies EXCEPT __________.
A. massive black holes
B. small black holes
C. small, dim stars
D. massive stars
Questions 41 to 45 are based on the following passage:
Jon Clark’s study of the effect of the modernization of a telephone exchange on exchange maintenance work and workers is a solid contribution to a debate that encompasses two lively issues in the history and sociology of technology: technological determinism and social constructivism.
Clark makes the point that the characteristics of a technology have a decisive influence on job skills and work organization. Put more strongly, technology can be a primary determinant of social and managerial organization. Clark believes this possibility has been obscured by the recent sociological fashion, exemplified by Braverman’s analysis that emphasizes the way machinery reflects social choices. For Braverman, the shape of a technological system is subordinate to the manager’s desire to wrest control of the labor process from the workers. Technological change is construed as the outcome of negotiations among interested parties who seek to incorporate their own interests into the design and configuration of the machinery. This position represents the new mainstream called social constructivism.
The constructivists gain acceptance by misrepresenting technological determinism: technological determinists are supposed to believe, for example, that machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society. The alternative to constructivism, in other words, is to view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization.
Clark refutes the extremes of the constructivists by both theoretical and empirical arguments. Theoretically he defines “technology” in terms of relationships between social and technical variables. Attempts to reduce the meaning of technology to cold, hard metal are bound to fail, for machinery is just scrap unless it is organized functionally and supported by appropriate systems of operation and maintenance. At the empirical level Clark shows how a change at the telephone exchange from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semi electronic switching systems altered work tasks, skills, training opportunities, administration, and organization of workers. Some changes Clark attributes to the particular way management and labor unions negotiated the introduction of the technology, whereas others are seen as arising from the capabilities and nature of the technology itself.
Thus Clark helps answer the question: “When is social choice decisive and when are the concrete characteristics of technology more important?” (363 words)
41. The primary purpose of the passage is to __________.
A. advocate a more positive attitude toward technological change
B. discuss the implications for employees of the modernization of a telephone exchange
C. consider a successful challenge to the constructivist view of technological change
D. challenge the position of advocates of technological determinism
42. Which of the following statements about the modernization of the telephone exchange is supported by the passage?
A. The new technology reduced the role of managers in labor negotiations.
B. The modernization was implemented without the consent of the employees directly affected by it.
C. The modernization had an impact that went significantly beyond maintenance routines.
D. Some of the maintenance workers felt victimized by the new technology.
43. Which of the following most accurately describes Clark’s opinion of Braver man’s position?
A. He respects its wide-ranging popularity.
B. He disapproves of its misplaced emphasis on the influence of managers.
C. He admires the consideration it gives to the attitudes of the workers affected.
D. He is concerned about its potential to impede the implementation of new technologies.
44. The information in the passage suggests that Clark believes that __________ would be true if social constructivism had not gained widespread acceptance.
A. Businesses would be more likely to modernize without considering the social consequences of their actions.
B. There would be greater understanding of the role played by technology in producing social change.
C. Businesses would be less likely to understand the attitudes of employees affected by modernization.
D. Modernization would have occurred at a slower rate.
45. According to the passage, which of the following did constructivists employ to promote their argument?
A. Empirical studies of business situations involving technological change
B. Citation of managers supportive of their position
C. Construction of hypothetical situations that support their view
D. Contrasts of their view with a misstatement of an opposing view
Section B Short-Answer Questions (10%)
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage:
In Winters v. United States (1908), the Supreme Court held that the right to use waters flowing through or adjacent to the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation was reserved to American Indians by the treaty establishing the reservation. Although this treaty did not mention water rights, the Court ruled that the federal government, when it created the reservation, intended to deal fairly with American Indians by reserving for them the waters without which their lands would have been useless. Later decisions, citing Winters, established that courts can find federal rights to reserve water for particular purposes if (1) the land in question lies within an enclave under exclusive federal jurisdiction, (2) the land has been formally withdrawn from federal public lands—i.e., withdrawn from the stock of federal lands available for private use under federal land use laws—and set aside or reserved, and (3) the circumstances reveal the government intended to reserve water as well as land when establishing the reservation.
Some American Indian tribes have also established water rights through the courts based on their traditional diversion and use of certain waters prior to the United States’ acquisition of sovereignty. For example, the Rio Grande pueblos already existed when the United States acquired sovereignty over New Mexico in 1848. Although they at that time became part of the United States, the pueblo lands never formally constituted a part of federal public lands; in any event, no treaty, statute, or executive order has ever designated or withdrawn the pueblos from public lands as American Indian reservations. This fact, however, has not barred application of the Winters doctrine. What constitutes an American Indian reservation is a question of practice, not of legal definition, and the pueblos have always been treated as reservations by the United States. This pragmatic approach is buttressed by Arizona v. California (1963), where in the Supreme Court indicated that the manner in which any type of federal reservation is created does not affect the application to it of the Winters doctrine. Therefore, the reserved water rights of Pueblo Indians have priority over other citizens’ water rights as of 1848, the year in which pueblos must be considered to have become reservations.
46. What rights did the treaty establishing the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation fail to identify for its inhabitants?
47. What does the passage imply from the only criteria for establishing a reservation’s water rights, as discussed in underlined part of the first paragraph?
48. What is the relationship between Arizona v. California and the criteria in the Winters doctrine?
49. What is the “pragmatic approach” defined as?
50. For what purpose does the author cite the fact that the Rio Grande pueblos were never formally withdrawn from public lands?
III. Writing (30%)
Directions: In this part you are going to write an essay of about 400 words within 60 minutes on the topic of online anti-corruption. Write your essay on the Answer Sheet.
Chinese netizens are embracing “online anti-corruption”, a sign of the China’s endeavor to fight wrongdoing. As reported, a large number of Chinese officials have been removed from their posts due to corruption or misconduct after investigations arising from initial clues provided by internet users. What do you think about it? You should clearly state your main argument and support it with appropriate details.
B. 《独立宣言》1775年7月14日，本宣言由第二次大陆会议(Second Continental
D. 后世所称《独立宣言》起草的五人小组（Committee of Five）是：马萨诸塞 州的约翰·亚当斯、宾夕法尼亚州的本杰明·富兰克林、维吉尼亚州的托马 斯·杰斐逊、纽约州的罗伯特·李文斯顿（Robert R. Livingston）、康涅狄克州的罗杰·谢尔曼（Roger Sherman）。
B. 约翰牛（John Bull），是英国的拟人化形象，源于1727年由苏格兰作家约
C. 白厅（White Hall）是美国总统的官邸和办公室。白厅由美国国家公园管
D. 白金汉宫（英文：Buckingham Palace），是英国的皇家宫殿和国王（女王）
A. 马丁•海德格尔(Martin Heidegger))
B. 弗里德里希•威廉•尼采（Friedrich W. Nietzsche）
C. 黑格尔（Lvilhelm Friedrich Hegel）
D. 叔本华 （Arthur Schopenhauer）
A. IOC——国际奥委会 。
D. NPC—— 全国人民代表大会。
D. 唐宋散文八大家，即唐代的韩愈、柳宗元和宋代的苏轼、苏洵、苏辙 （苏
A. 20 30 B. 30、40 C. 40、 50 D. 50、60
A.墨翟 B.孟轲 C.荀况 D.韩非
A. 跳马 B. 鞍马 C.平衡木 D. 高低杠
A. 潘朵拉的盒子 B. 诺亚方舟
C. 不和的金苹果 D. 达摩克利斯之剑
A、达摩 B、弘忍 C、僧璨 D、慧能
A.双声、叠韵、词的重叠、叠音词 B. 叠韵、双声、词的重叠、叠音词
C.双声、叠韵、叠音词 、词的重叠 D. 双声、词的重叠、叠韵、叠音词
A．强迫型人格 B．偏执型人格 C．回避型人格 D．冲动型人格
A. A股 B. B股 C. H股 D. S股
A. 对流层 B. 平流层、 C. 暖层 D. 散逸层
A．《诗经》 B．《老子》 C．《庄子》 D．《离骚》
22. 纳米（nm），又称毫微米，是长度的度量单位，一纳米是一米的_____, 略等于
A. 十万分之一 B. 百万分之一 C. 千万分之一 D.十亿分之一
A．整体思维 B．辩证思维 C．抽象思维 D．类比思维