Part One: Vocabulary (1×30=30 points)
Section A English to Chinese
Translate the following, English terms into Chinese. Write your translation on Answer sheet.
1. cultural identity
2. foreignization and domestication
7.foreigh capital flow
8.carbon emission reduction goal
9.intemational monetary foundation
11 .most-favored nation treatment
14. box office
15.WAN(Wide Area Network)
托福考试（Test of English as a Foreigh Language)
Section B Chinese to English
Translate the following Chinese terms into English. Write your translation on Answer sheet
2. bilateral trade
3. cultural empathy
4. the story of the stone
5. appropriately tight
6. Midterm Election
7. Home mortgage slave
8. Currency manipulator
9. scar literature; the literature of the wounded
10. (a) heaven on earth
11. tertiary industry
12. Unfavorable Balance Of Trade
13. Green national economy
14. rewritten translation
15. puppy love, fall in love at an early age
Part Two Text (2×60=120 points)
Section A English to Chinese
Translate the following. English text into Chinese. Write your translation on Answer sheet.
The Nature of Language
The nature of language is the nature of human thought and human action, for language is no more nor less than the tool of both of these aspects of human nature. A word is either the shadow of an act or of an idea. Verbal sounds have no meaning in themselves. They are the channels, the media for the expression or communication of Aat which lies outside of themselves. Plato has made clear to us how easy it is to deceive ourselves with words, to labor under an iixq)ression that just because we can utter a sound we also necessarily know what we are talking about.
Words may be empty vessels and pour out no more than hollow sounds. We find it simple to define some words and extremely difficult to define others. The reason is that (he definition of a word is the experience it records. Hence the definiteness of a definition of a word is in proportion to the vividness of the experience, its meaning. We readily define chair because of our frequent expmence with the object of which the sound is a symbol. We define it in terms of our experience, as an object to sit in. But a definition of terms like truth, or virtue, or honesty, or beauty is a most severe trial because of the haziness or complete lack of experiences of this nature. What, then, is the source of the meaning of words? What is the relationship between words, things, and actions?
Meaning begins as behavior and culminates as language. There is meaning as behavior and meaning as language. And meaning as language is the consequence of meaning as behavior. There can be behavior without language, but there could be no meaning as language without behavior. The . source of the meaning of words is thus behavior. The relationship between behavior and things gives rise to the meaning of words. Meaning is inherent neither in flings nor in words, but both things and words obtain their meaning from behavior.
语言之本质无非是人类思维和人类行为之本质，因为语言不过是人类这两个属性的工具 -而己。一个单词要么是一个行为的影子，要么就是一个观念的影子，言语声音本身没有意义。 它们是实现表达或交流外部世界之通道或媒介。柏拉图曾经向我们明确地表示：我们自己是 多么容易被语词所欺骗。我们总是自欺欺人地认为,因为我们能够发出声音，我们也因此一 定知道我们在谈论着什么。
言语是空虚的容器，倒出来的只是空洞无物的声音。我们发现，某些单词很容易理解， 而其他一些单词却难以理解。原因在于一个单词的意义是它所记载的经验。因此，一个单词 之定义的确切性要与它所传达的经验之生动性成正比，这就是它的意义。我们之所以很容易 给椅子下定义，是因为我们经常与声音这个符号所代表的对象发生关系。我们是根据我们的 经验来界定椅子,并把它作为二个坐的对象。但是，若要对像真理或美德或诚实或美这样的 词项下定义,却是一个非常严肃的考验，因为我们对这些词项的性质感到非常模糊或完全缺 乏经验。那么，什么是单词之意义的源泉呢？单词、事物和行为之间又具有什么样的关系呢？ 4意义肇始于行为，终极于语言，因此而有所谓作为行为之意义和作为语言之意义。语言的意义伴随着行为之意义而到来。行为可以没有语言，但不可能脱离行为而有语言之意义。 因此行为是单词的鸯义之源泉。单词之意义产生于行为和事物：£间的关系。意义不是事物所 固有的，也不是单词所固有的。无论是事物还是单词，它都是从行为中获得它们的意义。
Section B Chinese to English
Translate the following Chinese text Into English. Write your translation on Answer sheet.
原来这义学也离家不远，原系当日始祖所立,恐族中子弟有力不能殖师者，即入此中读 书。凡族中为官者皆有帮助银两，以为学中裔火之费；举年高有德之人为塾师。如今秦宝二 人来了，一一的都互相拜见过，读起书来。自此后二人同来同往同起同坐，愈加亲密。兼贾 母爱惜，也常留下秦钟一住三五天，和自己重孙一般看待。因见秦钟家中不甚宽裕，又助些 衣服等物。不上一两月工夫，秦钟在荣府里便惯熟了。宝玉终是个不能安分守理的人,一味 的随心所欲，因此发了癖性，又向秦钟悄说：“咱们两个人，一样的年纪，况又同窗，以后不 必论叔侄，只论弟兄朋友就最了。”先是秦舍不敢，宝玉不从，只叫他兄弟”，叫他表字“鲸 卿’ 秦钟也只得混着乱叫起来。（296个字）
The Jia clan school was situated at no great distance from Rong-guo House. It was a charitable foundation which had been established many years previously by the founder of the family and was designed for the sons and younger brothers of those members of the clan who could not afford to pay for private tuition. All members of the clan holding official posts were expected to contribute towards its expenses and mem bers of advanced years and known integrity were chosen to be its masters. As soon as Bao-yu and Qin Zhong arrived they were introduced to the other students and then set to work at once on their lessons.
From now on the two friends were inseparable, arriving at school and leaving school together and sitting beside each other in class. Grandmother Jia herself became very fond of Qin Zhong. She was always having him to stay for three or four nights at a time and treated him exactly as if he were one of her own great-grandchildren. And because she realized that his family was not very well off, she frequently helped out with clothes and the like. Within a month or two he was a familiar and accepted member of the Rong household.
Bao-yu had always been impatient of social conventions, preferring to let sentiment rather than convention dictate the terms of his relationships. It was this which now prompted him to make Qin Zhong the following proposal:
‘You and I are schoolmates and pretty much the same age. Let us in future forget all this “uncle” “nephew” business and address each other exactly like friends or brothers!’
Qin Zhong was at first too timid to comply; but as Bao-yu persisted and went on calling him ‘brother’ or ‘Jing-qing’ (which was his school-name) whenever he spoke to him, Qin Zhong himself gradually fell into the habit of addressing Bao-yu as an equal.